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Lesson Seven 109
h. ཁོས་ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་ལོ་ཤས་སྡོད་དགོས་ཀྱི་རེད།
hebyi̅ am ericato y ear several live have fut. compl.
i̅He will have to live in America for several years.
i. ཁོ་ཁམ་ས་ལ་འགྲོ་དགོས་ཀྱང་། ལོ་མང་པོ་སྡོད་དགོས་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།
he kham to go have though year many live have neg. fut. compl.
Even though he has to go to Kham, (he) will not have to live (there for) many years.
7.5.4 Thei̅དགོས་ + པ་རེད་ usualcomplement i̅
This construction usually conveys usual or general statements. Note how the time
context words སྔོན་མ་, དེང་སང་, and ནམ་རྒྱུན་ affect the meani ng of examples a., b., and c.
a. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་ཞིང་འགྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་རེད།
fornl erly chi na to fa m ersnom ads pl by tax bi g give have usual compl.
In the past, f urnlers and nomads i nHChi na had to pay (give) big taxes.
b. དེང་སང་རྒྱ་ནག་ལ་ཞིང་འགྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་རེད།
these days china to farnlers nomads pl.by tax big give have usual compl.
These days, fa mers and nomads in China have to pay (give) big taxes.
c. ནམ་རྒྱུན་གྲོང་གསེབ་གྱི་གཞོན་པ་ཚོ་སློབ་གྲྭར་འགྲོ་དགོས་པ་མ་རེད།
usually village of youths pl. school to go have usual compl. neg.
Usually village youths do not have to go to school.
7.5.5 དགོས་ Constructions i n the past conveyi ng completed action
Tibetan disti nguishes between past obligatory action that has been completed or
carried out and general obligations or duties in the past. In English when we say , " He had
to pay taxes, " it could mean either that he actually paid them, or thati̅he shoul d have or
was supposed to payi̅them (e.g., " He had to pay taxes but didn"t") . Ti betan uses the བྱུང་
fornls to convey the i dea that not only did they "have to" do somethi ng ------ they did itt
a. སྔོན་ ་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འགྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་རེད།
fo merly i ndia to fa mers nomads pl.by tax big give have usual compl.
In the past, farnlers aund nomads i n India had to pay (give) big taxes.i̅
i̅If the writer wanted to convey that not only was there an obligation, but that the
obligation had been completed, he would have used one of the བྱུང་ fornls.
b. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འགྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་བྱུང་བ་རེད།
fo merly india to fa mers nomads plby tax big give have usual compl.
In the past, famers and nomads i n India had toi̅pay (give) big taxes.
The negative fomns parall el those encouuntered earlier.
c. སྔོན་མ་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་ཞིང་འགྲོག་ཚོས་ཁྲལ་ཆེན་པོ་སྤྲོད་དགོས་པ་མ་རེད།
རྗ

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