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Lesson Ten 209 -
10. Thisisa standardway tolist an enumeration. ཇ་ཐག་འིགྱེད་དངུལ་སོགས་ consists of four
iterns ཇ་ (tea) , ཐག་ (porridge) , འིགྱེད་ (alms [can be goodsin kind) , དངུལ་ (money) . Use of
སགས་ indicates that the ]ist is not completei̅so it is nornmally translated asi̅"etc.".
l . དཀྲིགས་བཅར་ is probably derived from Hindi. It refers to doing something in a usual or
customaryway. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
l . ཡས་ is a verbal nominalizer that is explained in 6.7..i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
13. ཚོན་ཁྲས་བཟོས་པའི་རིས་བཟོ་ isa commonrelatiVe construction conveying "Kwhich is made
from V." Here iti̅means "shapes which are made from colored butter."i̅ i̅
14. ཆོག་ is an auxiliary verb meaning "al]owed" that is used after other verbs to indicatei̅
"allowed" or "not allowed" with respect to that verbal action. In this case, མི་ཆོག་ fo]]owing
ཡོང་ means "not allowed to come." This Verb is presented in more detail in ll 9.
15 . གཡས་གཡོན།literallymeansleftandright"butwithnumbersconveys"moreor]ess."
16. ཁག་ is a pluralizing particle that when used with nouns conveys a pluura]ityofdifferent
kinds of unit, sections, sectors, or parts. Thus, མེ་མདའི་ཁག་མང་པོ་འིདུག་ means"manydifferent
kinds of guns." Here དགོན་ཁག་ means from different rnonasteries but not necessarily from
all monasteries.
17. The combination of ནས་ཀྱང་ means "also from" or "even from."
I0. I6 Vocabulaury
དཀའ་ང་ལ་ difficulties ཁ་གདན་ smallrug (usually 3 " x 5 ")
དཀར་ཆ་ light ཁག་ pluralizingparticle
དཀར་ཡོལ་གང་ onecup i̅ ཁར་ conjunctive particlefor
དཀྲྀིགས་བཅར་ regularly, in a usual or adjectives, verbal
customauryway clause connectiVe
བཀོད་ va. p. of འགོད་ put into, ཁུར་ va. p. of འིཁུར་ carried
onto ཚེ་ཁྱོད་ར་ you
བཀྲམ་ va. p. of འིགྲེམས་ spread, མཁྱེན་ va. to know (h.)
distributed, stationed འིཤྲུད་ va. to wash, brush (teethl)

(soldiers) འགྱུར་ Vi. to beget changed,
སྐད་གྲགས་ལྡེན་པ་ famous i̅ i̅ i̅ · altered
སྐུ་འིཕྲེང་ལྔ་པ་ fifth incarnation (in a line འགྱེད་ alms (gift usua]ly of
ཚེ་ of incaurnations) mHoney) to monks va.
སྐྱེ་ va. to give birth ------རྒྱག་
སྐྱོན་
excessive particle གྲལ་འཛིན་ therite ofarraunging the i̅
བསྐུར་ va. p. of སྐུར་ sent rows where monks sit

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