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330 ི་ Lesson Thirteen
establishment") it is. Some other common examp]es are
གནམ་གྲུ་ sky + boat = airplane i̅
ཞིང་ཆུ་ agriculturalfield + water = irrigation water
ས་བདག་ land + owner = land owner, landlord
སློབ་ཕྲུག་ school + chi]dren = student
ད་མག་མི་ war + person = soldier
གནམ་གཤིས་ sky + naturecharacter = weather, climatei̅
གློག་འིཕྲིན་ e]ectricity + correspondencecommunication = telegram
I3.1.4 ConjuunctiVe compounds
[ ]་̅Iike premodifying compounds, the component syllables in these compounds also
have different meanings, but here the relationship between them isi̅one or conjunction
rather than modification. For examp]e, "workers and fa mers" consists of the first syllable
ofthewordབཟོ་པ་ ("workers") andthefirst syllab]e oftheword ཞིང་པ་ ("faurnmers") . The
meaning is the combination of the two"workers and fa mers."
a. བཟོ་པ་དང་ཞིང་པ་མང་པོས་ཚོགས་འདུ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Many workers and farnmers held a meeting.
b. བཟོ་ཞིང་མང་པོས་ཚོགས་འདུ་བྱས་པ་རེད།
Many workers and faurnlers helda meeting.
Some other comHmon conjunctive compounds are
གནས་དུས་ place and time
ཞིང་འིགྲོག་ farnmers and nomads
དགེ་སློབ་ teachers and students i̅
རྒྱ་བོད་ ChinaChinese andTibetTibetans
ལོ་ཟླ་ years and months
རྟ་དྲེལ་ horsesandmu]es
13. I.5 Polar compounds
i̅ In these constructions each of the sy]]ab]es has an opposite meaning, but the ove
meaning of the compoundis either conjunctive or an abstract notion deriving from both.
For examp]e, ཕ་མ་ litera]ly consists of ཕ་ ("father") and མ་ ("mother") andas a compound
can meaun either "father and mother" or "parent (s ." Other common compounds are
ཉིན་མཚན་ day + night, all thetime
ཕོ་མོ་ཚེ་ male + female, sex
གཞུང་སྒེར་ i̅ government + priVateeverything
Adjectives are more commonly used as the components of pxolar compounds.

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