ཨཽ
Lesson One7 typically
typically high tone and unaspirated, the second is hi gh tone but aspirated, the third is l ow
tone, and the fourth is nasali zed. The consonants ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་ represent this ty pe of paradigm.
l.4.2. The consonants ཀ་ཁ་ག་ང་ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅ Each or these our consonaunts li nguistically is called a velar stop because the
middle part of the tongue touches the velar section of the (roof of the) mouth and "stops"
the air flow momentarily. For those unfamiliar with these linguistic ternms, use the rough
pronunciation equivalencies provided above and listen carefully to the tape andyour
i nstructor.
ཀ་
aund ཁ་ are high tone consonants made i n the same part of the mouth. However,
whereas the latter is pronouunci̅ed with aspiration, that is, with a puffi̅of air followi ng the
"k"sound, the fornler is unaspirated. The aspirated "k "sound is equivalent to the i nitial
English consonant "k" i n words such as སུey or སུཾ་ eep. The unaspirated "k" soundis
technically an unvoicedvelar stop and occurs i n English ony followi ng "s" consonants,
for example i n the word "skip." It never occurs at the beginni ng of words. However, its
pronunci ation approximatesi̅the voiced i niti al "g" sound i n words such as goat or give,
and will be tra nscribed in this book as "g."
i̅i̅The "ŋ" sound is also difficult for English speakers si nce it does not occur at the
beginni ng or English words. The best onei̅can do to approximate this sound is pronounce
the phrase "si ng nga-long whilei̅emphasi zi ng the second " nga." Examples of these
consonants and their pronunciation are
ཀ་ gā (theletter ཀ་) ག་ ga̲ (what)
ཁ་
kā (mouth) ང་ ŋa̲ (I)
l.4.3 The consonants ཅ་ཆ་ཇ་ཉ་
These consonants li nguistically are k nown as paata[ stops because the upper front
part of the tongue articulates agai nst th e palatal area on the roof of the m outh a nd stops
the flow of air momentarily. The first of this series of sounds is high tone and
unaspirated, the second is high tone and aspirated, the third is low tone but varies as to
whether it is pronounced "j" or "ch." The fourth consonant is nasal.
ཅ་
jā (the letter ཅ་) ཇ་ cha̲ (tea)
ཆ་
chā (a part) ཉ་ ña̲ (fish)
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