8 - LessonHOne
I.4.4 The consonants ཏ་ཐ་ད་ན་
These consonants are li nguistically k nown as aveoar stops because the tipof the
tongue articulates agai nst the alveolar region (just behi nd the teeth) aund stops the flowi̅of
air momentarily. A gai n the first of this series is high tone and unaspirated, the second is hi
hi gh tone and aspi rated, the third is low tone but vari es as to whether it i s pronou nced "d"
or "t." The fourth consonaunt is nasal.
ཏ་
dā (the letter ཏ་) ད་ da̲ (now)
ཐ་
tā (theletter ཐ་) ན་ na̲ (if)
I.4.5 The consonants པ་ཕ་བ་མ་
i̅These consonants are k nown as biabia stops The lower lip articulates agai nst the
upper lip and blocks the flow of air momentarily. This series follows the same pattern as
those presented above, བ་ being pronounced sometimes "b"and other times "p."
པ་
bā (a past te nse verbal particle) བ་ pa̲ (cow)
ཕ་
pā (father) མ་ ma̲ (mother)
l.4.6 The consonants ཙ་ཚ་ཛ་ཝ་
i̅The first three consonants follow the basic pattern i n that ཙ་ i s hi gh tone voiceless
unaspirated, ཚ་ is hi gh tone voiceless aspirated, and ཛ་ is l ow tone voiceless unaspi ra ted.
The last consonant, ཝ་, is not a nasal consonant. It is pronounced with a "w"
sou nd.
ཙ་
dzā (the letter ཙ) ཛ་ dza̲ (the l etter ཛ)
ཚ་
tsā (hot) ཝ་ wa̲ (fox)
The remaini ng l l consonants do not follow the above descri bed pattern . The
consonant chart presented earli er i n thi s lesson should be consulted for their
pronunciations.
I.5 Vowels
Literaury Ti betan h as five vowel s, one of which ("a") , as m entioned above, i s not
written and i nheres i n otherwi se unm ark ed syl l ables. Of the rem ai ni ng four, three are
written above the letter and one (the vowel "u") is written below
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