0 - LessonHOne
Syllables areeither simpe or Connpex. Simple syllables consist of a single
consonant and vowel. They are exemplified by the examples cited above. Complex
syllables consist of c l usters of consona nts aund a vowel. All syllables have a "root" or
" head" consonant to which other consonants are joi ned by bei ng p nefixed, suffixed
superfixed and subfixed. Weshall number the possible consonant slots surrounding the
root consonant (labeled སཱཊཱུin the di agram below) as follows
2

l?ཊཱུ་ 45 (v = v0 weI)
v
I.7. IComplex syllables i̅ As
As show n above, there are five slots where consonants caun be added to the head
consonant. Si nce these slots are opti onal , a vari ety of combi nati ons occur. However,
while all thirty letters can fill the head slot, the other slots (l5) have restricted
mem bership. Consequently, it i s necessaryto leaurn which letters occur i n which slots, as
well as the changes i n the fornl and p onunciation that these l etters can unndergo when
added to a head consonant.
List o ette s wliCl Ct ཎ་ ?[ tt ?ve sy abe sots
slot-l (prefixed letters) ག་ད་བ་མ་འ་
slot2 (superfixed letters) ར་ ་ལ་ས་
slot-3 (subfixedletters) ཡ་ར་ལ་ཝ་འ་
slot4 (suffixedletters) ག་ང་ད་ན་བ་མ་འ་ར་ལ་ས་
slot5 (postsuffi xed letters) ས་
In this lesson we will examine the suffixed letters used in slots 4 and 5. The
other three slots will be dealt with in Lesson 2.
l. 7.2 Slot- 4 (su ffixed l etters) i̅ i̅ i̅
As indicatedabove, ten letters fill this slot ག་ང་ད་ན་བ་འ་མ་ར་ ་ལ་ས་ Letters in slot-4
are pronounced after the vowel.
I.7.2. IThe suffixed letter ག་ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
This letter addseither aHfi nal "g" sound to the i nitial consonant or makes the
vowel falling tone (as illustrated below) . Reading pronunciations typically pronounce the
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