[2 - LessonHOne
pronunciations tend to pronounce the "ŋ" soundi̅whereasi̅spok en pronunciations usually
use the nasalized vowels. Examples of the nasali zed versions of the above words are
རང་ སོང་ ཆང་ ཡོང་ ཉུང་
ra̲ n sōn chān yo̲n ñu̲n
l.7.2.3 The suuffixedletters ད་ and ས་
These consonants are never pronounced as a "d" or "s" sound. Instead, they
l) make the tone of the vowel fal li ngi̅tone------high tone vowels become hi gh and falli ng,
andlow tone vowels become low falli ng. For example, ར་ ད་ is pronounced notasre̲d but
rather as re̲è and མེས་ is pronounced me̲è.
2) These suffixed consonants also change the quality of the vowel sou nd for som e
vowels. These vowel changes follow a regular pattern
abecomes ɛ o becomes öu becomes ü
"e" and "i" do not change their i nherent vowel quality although the vowel
becomes falling tone.
For example ཚེ
ནད་
བོད་ ལུད་ མེད་ སུས་ ལས་ གོས་ རིས་
nɛ̲ɛ̀ pö̲ö̀lü̲ǜme̲è sǖǜ l ɛ̲ɛ̀ gö̲ö̀ ri̲ì i̅
sick Ti bet manure none by whom work clothes desi gn I.7.2.4
I.7.2.4 The suu̲ffixedletter ན་

This suffixed l etter lengthens aund nasali zes the vowel it follows. The tone remains the
the same although there are a series of vowel shifts analogous to those we encountered
with the suu̲ffixed l etter ད་
Vowel Shifts a becomes ɛn u becomes ün
obecomes ön e becom es en
i becom es i n
ལན་ ཀུན་ ཟིན་ རིན་
lɛ̲n gǖn si̲n ri̲n
message all catch price
I.7.2.5 The suffixed letter མ་ i̅
This suffixed letter adds an "m " sound. The tone is unchanged.
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