4 ---ཆོཚེ༔ ཚེ༔U ནྟ---rVrO
2.lThe Alphabet, continuedi Slotl (prefixedletters) ག་ད་བ་མ་འ་ i̅
In Li̅essonHOne, simple sy llables consisti ng of a root l etter aund a Slot- 4 i̅suffixed

letter were i ntroducedi ཁ་ + ་ང་ = ་ཁང་ (k āŋ) . In thi s l esson the rem ai ni ng combi nati ons and
their pronunciati ons are prese nted. The diagram of syllabic structure is repeated bel ow
foryour convenience.
2

I45 (v = v0 w l)
When this slot i s filled, at least one additi onal slot (other thanthe "root") m ust
also be fi lled or the root letter m ust have a vowel. Si nce y ou are familiar with 4 -slot
letters, the followi ng examples will be restricted to them.
Each of the five consonants which fill the lslot occur only before certai n root
consonants
ག་ occurs before the root consonants ཅ་ཉ་ཏ་ད་ན་ཙ་ཞ་ ཟ་ཡ་ཤ་ས་ and combi nations of
these with letters i n the other slots i̅ i̅
ད་ occurs before the root consonants ཀ་ག་ང་པ་བ་མ་ and combi nations of these
with letters i n the other slots [ ]
བ་
occurs before theroot consonants ཀ་ག་རྔ་སྔ་ཅ་རྗ་རྙ་སྙ་ཏ་ད་རྣ་སྣ་ཙ་རྫ་ཞ་ཟ་ and
combinations of these with letters i n other slots i̅ i̅
མ་ " occurs before th e root consonants ཁ་ག་ང་ ཆ་ཇ་ ཉ་ཐ་ད་ན་ ཚ་ཛ་ and com bi nations of
these with letters i n other slots i̅ i̅
འ་ occurs before theroot consonants ཁ་ག་ཆ་ཇ་ཐ་ད་ཕ་བ་ཚ་ཛ་ and combi nations of
these with letters i n oth er sl ots
The presence of these 5 prefixed consonants does not cha nge the sound of the
syllable"s vowel, but can affect its tone. When they are joined with root letters that are
hi gh tone consonants, the resultant syllable remai ns high tone regardless of whether the
prefixed consonant i s high or low tone by itsel f. For examp l e the root letters ས་ and ཀ་ are
high tone soin གསུམ་ sūm "three, " གས་ར་ sāā, sār "new", and དཀོན་ gȫn "scarce, rare, "
the vowels remai n hi gh tone. They are pronounced the same as if they were སུ་མ་, སར་ ",
and ཀོན་ i̅ i̅
However, when prefixed consonants are joi ned to r ot letters that are ow tone
consonants, theresultant syllable may become high tone, although the pronunciation of
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