30 - ེ་ Lesson Two
mentioned, even though they will be translated the same.
i̅i̅ The འདུག་། verb is generally used when one has firsthaund k nowl edge, but' aund this
i si̅importa nt, it also convey s "speci ficity." Specificity refers to that fact that འ་ དུག་ i s used
with respect to k nowledge deriving from a specific situation or state in contra st to i̅
general, usual, or commonly k now n situati ons or states. For these, the ཡོད་པ་རེད་ fornm is
used. Let us suppose that you are standi ng i n a parking lot and want toi̅say that there are a
lot of cars there. y ou would have to use the འདུག་ verb si nce it is a specific statement
based on firsthand k nowledge. However, if you wanted to convey that there are lots of
cars i n America, you would nornmally use the ཡོད་པ་རེ་ ད་ fornm si nce this is a general
statem ent of a comm only k now n fact.
i̅Consequently, while ཡོད་པ་རེད་ does not imply firstha nd k nowledge, it is wrong to
think of it as always connoting less certai nty than འདུག་ In fact, in certain contexts, ཡོད་པ་
རེད་
expresses more certai nty than འེདུག་ ' e.g, . i f someone said " He is good, " usi ng thei̅ཡོད་
པ་རེད་
fornn wheni̅an actor came on the screen' it woul d imply that the actor probably is
fam ous and that it i s generally sai d th at he is good. Or it could mean that the speaker h as
had previous experience with the actor (or person) and therefore can state that he is good.
If འདུག་ was used, it would generally meau̲n that based on seei ng the actor, the speaker
feels he is good.
Thus, while འིདུག་ implies firsth and k nowl edge, the m ore basic differe nces between
between these two existential verbs rests on i nfornlation about a specific or particular
situation or state versus infornlation or k nowledgeregardi ng a commonly accepted or
generally k nown situation or state. We will see i n later sections that when these
exi stentiali̅verbs are used as auxi lia ry verbs, these basi c disti ncti ons will carry over.
However, it shouldbe noted that written Tibetan is not a hi ghly standardi zed language
and exceptions to almost allrules occur, particularly when the authors are not native
Lhasa dialect speakers and are usi ng di stinctions and fornms typical of their dial ect.
The simplest existentiali̅constructions consist of a subject and an existenti al verb.
These sentences express the existence of the subject. For example
a. དམག་མི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
mə̅རྱ་ mi y ɔ̲ɔ̀reè [or y ö̲bəreè][ yö̲bəreè is the reading pronuunci ation and y ɔ̲ɔ̀reèis the

̅ i̅ spoken ponunciation]
soldierexist2
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2 "Exist" will be usedin the interlinear translation for all three existential verbs.
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