32 - Lesson Two
soldier exist ?
Are there sol di ers?
h. དམག་མི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་དད་མ།
mə̅ə̅mi yö̲baredam
sol dier exist ?
Are there soldi ers?
2.6. IThe dative-locative case i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅Tibetan nouns aue i nflected, that is to say, most of them change i n fornm accordi ng
to their fu ncti on i n sentences. The differe nt fuunctions i n Tibetan are grouped i nto four
classes or Cases each withi̅its own endi ngs nomi native, da tive-locative, genitive,
i nstrumental . The nomi native i s the basic, or unaltered, case i n that it is the forn[ that
occurs when thi̅e noun is used alone as i n the glossau̲ry of this book. We encountered it as
the subject of li nki ngi̅sentences. Some i nflected languages such as Russian also have an
"accusative" case whichi̅ denotes the direct object, but i n Tibetan the direct object is left
unmark ed (like the nomi native case) .
i̅i̅ T he dative-locative case is used with nounsi̅ (aund adjectives) to denote the
recipient of som ethi ng thati̅is sent or given (the i ndirect object) , or the locati on of some
action (in, at, or on somethi ng) . It has a number ofdifferent fo ms which are used i n
accordance with the final letter of the syllabl e it follows.
Dfl རྒྱ---རྭ་ VCfl རྒྱV ཙོ་ C IflC རྒྱ་ --------------------------------------------- རྒྱིརྒྱ------------------------------------------------------
ལ་ after auny consonant or vowel (all fi nals)
ར་ or ར་ after a vowelར་ " attaches to the precedi ng
syllable)
དུ་
after ང་ ད་ ན་ མ་ ར་ ལ་
སུ་
after ས་ ཏུ་
ཏུ་ after ག་ བ་
The dativelocative particles will be glossed as "to" i n the i nterli near translation.
i̅In the followi ng sentences, the dative ocative fuunctions to mark off the place of
existence or the location of somethi ng or someone. In this role it answers the question
"where?"
a. བོད་ལ་ཚོང་པ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
pö̲ö̀ lətsōŋbay ɔɔ̀reè
tibet to trader exist
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