Lesson Two 35
d. དམག་མིར་མེ་མདའ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅m ee m e̲nda y ɔ̲ɔ̀reè

soldiers་།o gun exist i̅
i̅ Soldiers have guns. ཚེ
First person constructions usually use ཡོད་
e. ངར་ཁྱི་ཞིག་ཡོད།
ŋa̲a̲ kchīy ö̲ö̀
ito dog exist
Ihave adog. i̅ i̅ ̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
We have seen that the subject i n li nking sentences can be modified by ai̅ i̅
demonstrativesuch as དེ་ ("that") .i̅When these are used with the subject of an existential
sentence, the dativelocative particle is placed immediately atter the dem onstrative.
f. གྲྭ་པ་དེར་དཔེ་ཆ་འདུག།
tra̲ba de̲e̲ bēja du̲ù i̅
monk thatto booki̅exist
That m onk has (Ti betan sty l e) book s. i̅
Another comm on dem onstra tive is འདི་ ("thi s") .
g. གྲྭ་པ་འདིར་དཔེ་ཆ་ཞིག་འདུག།
tra̲ba de̲e̲ [ bēja chīdu̲ùi̅

monk thisto book one exist
This monk has a (Tibetan style) book.
̅ i̅ Existential constructions Can be further expanded by addi ng numerals and other
modifi ers to th e object or subject, e.g.
མང་པོ་
ཉུང་ཉུང་ ཁ་ཤས་ ཆུང་ཆུང་
mə̲ŋgu [m a̲ŋbo] ñu̲nñun [ñu̲ŋñuŋ] k āshɛɛ̀ chūnjun [chūŋjuŋ]
ma ny few several sm all
h. བོད་ལ་གྲྭ་པ་མང་པོ་འདུག།
pö̲lə tra̲ba mə̲ŋgu du̲ù i̅
tibet to m onk m any exist i̅
i̅There aremany monks in Tibet.
i. སློབ་གྲྭར་དགེ་རྒན་ཁ་ཤ་ ས་འདུག།
lābdraa ge̲genk āsheè du̲ùi̅
school to teacher several exi st
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dSpoken pronunciation of འ་ དིར་ and དེར་ are both de̲e̲.
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