Lesson Three 4.7
ཡིས་ ང་ ཡིས་ (by me)
all final letters ན་ ས་ གཡག་ན་ ས་, ཕུན་ ཚོགས་ན་ ས་ ,
དགེ་རྒན་ནས་
i̅For a short periodi̅of timei̅written materials in Tibet simplified this pattern by using
using thei̅གིས་ fomn excl usively with all finals. This, however, has gone out of favor, and
the taditional pattern presented above is agai n followed nowadays. i̅
i̅Because the i nstrum ental particle occurs after the nou n or noun phrase that is the
subject of active verbs, fi ndi ng the i nstrumental case particle is thei̅simplest way to
i denti fy the subject. Sentences a., b., and c. below illustrate the basic structure. In i̅
example a., "tiger" is the subject and "yak" is the object. In examples b., and c. \'\'yak" is
the subject and "tiger" isthe object.
a. སྟག་གི་ས་གཡག་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà ki y āà sɛ̅ɛ̀ b əreè
tiger by yakkilled past compl.
The ti ger killedy aks. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
གིས་ here m ark s the actor, the ti ger. The direct object, the yak, is left u nmark ed. The mai n
verb, བསད་ (killed) , i s followed by the standard third person past tense verb compl em ent
པ་རེདl ("bəreè") . Thus, བསད་པ་རེད་ means. " (A n actor he, she, it, they) killed (it) ." In this
sentence, the actor is the tiger. i̅ i̅
Sentence b. reverses the subject and object.
b. གཡག་གིས་སྟག་བསད་པ་རེད།
yāà ki dāàsɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
yak by tiger killed past compl.
The yaks killed tigers. i̅ i̅ i̅
Sentence c. changes the nornmal wordi̅order shown in b. by placi ng the object
before the subject. This causes no am bi guity i n Tibet because the subject (actor) --- the
yak ----i s m ark e d by the presence of the i nstrum ental particle གིས་ Therefore, unlike i̅ English
English where changes i n word order i n active sentences change the referent meani ng
(jim hit joh n------Ioh n hit jim) , i n Ti betan they affect only emphasi s.
c. སྟག་གཡག་གིས་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà yāà ki sɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
tigeryak by killedpast compl.
------ ------ ------ ------ --------------- ---
lAlthough thisi̅complement itself can be broken downintothe linking verb ར་ད་ aundthe
particle པ་, at this stage it is better treated as an i ndivisable unit conveyi ng past tense.



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