50 - Lesson Three

In addition to these pua words, there are two common plura li zi ng pxostpositions
(ནམས་ and ཚོ་) that are placed after count nouns (nouns such as "house" that can be
cou nted) and dem onstratives ("this" and "that") to express plurality .2 [These ]
postpositions pluralize the words and phrases they ཚེ་ follow. For example, when these are
joi ned to the dem onstatives "this" aund "that" (འདི་ཚོ་ aund དེ་ཚོ་) the m eani ng "these" and
"those'" is conveyed. ཚེ་ a.
a. གཡག་འི་ཚོས་སྟག་ཅིག་བསད་པ་རེད།

yāà di̲ndzöö̀dāà chīsɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
yak this pl.by tiger one killed past compl.
These (the) yaks ki l l ed a (one) ti ger. i̅
Note agai n that the i nstrumental particle follows the pl urali zer.
b. སྟག་ཁ་ཤས་ཀྱིས་གཡག་གཅིག་བསད་པ་རེད།
dāà k āshɛɛ̀ ki y āà chīsɛ̅ɛ̀bəreè
tiger several by yak one killed past compl.
Several tigers killed a (one) y ak.
c. གྲྭ་པ་གཅིག་གིས་དེ་བ་གཉིས་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
trapa chīki te̲p ñī̀ ñö̲ö̀bəreè
monk one by book two bought past compl.
Amonk bought two book s.
Other examples are ཚེ
d. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་མང་པོས་ཤf ཟས་པ་རེད།
lābdrāà ma̲ ŋböö̀shā sɛ̲ɛ̀ b əreè
stude nt many- by meat ate past compl.
Ma ny students ate meat.
e. མོས་སོན་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
mö̲ö̀ sȫn she̲traà ñö̲ö̀bəreè
she-by seed lots bought past compl.
She bought l ots of seed. ཚེ་ f.
f. སྔས་མ་ནོར་བུས་ཁྱི་གསུམ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
ŋɛ̅ɛ̅ma nɔ̲ɔ̲ b üǜkīsūm ñö̲ö̀bəreè
fornlerly norbu-by dog three bought past compl
Fornlerly, Norbu bought three dogs.
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2 T here i s al so one less comm on pl uurali zer that is used after all nouns དག་ .
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