Lesson Three 5 l
Sentence f. i llustrates how tempoal words such as སྔས་མ་ nornlally occur at the very
begi nni ng of Ti betan sentences and clauses.
g. ཁ་ས་ཞིང་པ་ཞིག་གིས་ཤ་ཏོག་ཙམ་ཟས་པ་རེད།
kɛ̅ɛ̅sa shi̲ŋb ə chīki sh ā dogdzam sɛ̲ɛ̀ bəreè
yesterday arnler one by m eat little ate past compl.
Afarnnerate a little meat yesterday.
3.3 Complex subject a nd object constructions
3.3. IComplex subjects
i̅i̅The subjects of active sentences can be modified by demonstra tives, pluurali zers
(i ncludi ng num bers) , a nd a djectives. Usi ng the sym bols " + " (mandatory presence) and
"ཌ་ "(optional) we can express thei̅fornmat of the subject ot active sentences as a forn ula
i̅ + noun ཌ་ dete mi nativei̅ཌ་̅ plurali zersi ngularizer + nstrum ental.
Thi s p oduces the followi ng possi bili ti es
l. + n + i nst.
དམག་མིས་
mə̅ə̅miì
soldierby i̅
by (the) soldi er (s)
2.+ n. + det. + i nst.
དམ་
ག་མི་འདིས་
mə̅ə̅mi di̲ì i̅
soldier + thisby
by this soldier
3.+ n. + pl. + inst.
དམག་མི་ན
མས་ཀྱིས་
mə̅ə̅mi nām ki
soldier + pl. + by
by (the) sol diers i̅
4.+ n. + det. + pl. + inst.
.
m རྱə̅mi di̲n ām ki
soldier + this + pl. + by
by the (these) soldi ers
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