Lesson Three 53
3.3.2 The complex object i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
̅ i̅ The object slot of active sentences can be similarly expaunded by the addition of
adjectives, pluralizers, and detern i natives. For example
a. བཟོ་པ་ཚོས་འཕྲུལ་འཁོར་ཡག་པོ་ཞིག་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
so̲badzöö̀trǖǖgɔɔya̲go chsö̲ö̀bəreè
worker pl.by machi ne good one made past compl.
The work ers made a good machi ne.
b. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་ལག་ཆ་མང་པོ་བཟོས་པ་རེད།
shi̲ŋb ətsöö̀ la̲ gja m ə̲ŋgu sö̲ö̀b əreè
fa mer pl.by tool many made past compl.
The farnlers made many tools. ཚེ
c. དམག་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ཚ་ལུ་མ་ཆེན་པོ་ཁ་ཤས་ཟས་པ་རེད།
mə̅ə̅mi n āmki tsə̅l um ə chēm bo k āshɛɛ̀ sɛ̲ɛ̀ b əreè
soldier plby oraunge bi g severalate past compl.
The soldiers ate several big oranges. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅The object can also be modified by two adjectives li nked bythe conjunctive
particle དང་ ("and") . i̅ ཚེ་ i̅ d.
d. དམག་མི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ལུག་དཀར་ ་པོ་དང་ཆེན་པོ་ཁ་ཤས་ཟས་པ་རེད།

mə̅ə̅mi nāmki l u̲ùgā ābo da̲ŋ chēmbok āshɛɛ̀ sɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
soldier plby sheep white and big several ate past compl. i̅ i̅
The soldi ers ate several bi g white sheep (sheep that were both big and white) .
3.3.3 The active verb
Verbs chaunge their fornm (or stem) i n di fferent tenses and can have up to four
stems. The verb "to kill" is an example of a 4 stem verb.
IIII[[ i̅ IVr
present utun e pa st innperative
གསོད་ གསད་ བསད་ སོད་
In modern literaury Tibetan, some 3 and 4 -stem verbs have been collapsed i nto 2 stem
stem verbs--- i.e., verbs with only a past andi̅a nonpast stem . In these cases the present
tense stemi̅is used for the future. The verbs i ntroduced in this lesson up to this poi nt have
the following stems
རྞ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------


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