50.- Lesson Three
constructions express both action currently goi ng on and action that was currently going
on at some point in the past. For example, in the sentence "Last year, when Icamei̅to
Ti bet he was buildi ng a house, " the present would be used to convey that the building of
ahouse was goi ng on when "I" was i n Tibet. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅The present complement consists of several particles and either a linking or
existential verb in the combinations listed below. Second and first person endings
typically do not di ffer from third person endings (although they do i n spoken Ti betan) .
Context------for ex ample, p onou ns---- nornmally makes it clear which person is i ntended.
ALTERNAT[ VEPRESENTTENSECOMPLEMENTS
l. vb. + ཀྱི་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) 7.vb. + བཞིན་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) 13.vb. + མུས་ཡོད་པ་རེད་
2.vb. + ཀྱི་འདུག་ . vb. + བཞིན་ ་འདུག་ 14.vb. + མུས་ཡོད་
3.vb. + ཀྱིན་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) 9.vb. + བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) 15.vb. + མུས་ ཡིན་
4.vb. + ཀིན་ ་འདུག་ 10.vb. + བཞིན་པ་རེད་ 16.vb. + མུས་ཡིན་འདུག་
5.vb. + བགྱི་ཡོད་ (པ་) (རེད་) l l . vb. + བཞི་ ན་པ་ཡིན་པ་རེད་ 17.vb. + མུས་རེད་
6.vb. + བབི་འདུག་ 12.vb. + བཞིན་པར་
i̅The overall presenttim e meani ng of these complements derives noti̅from the
inherent meaning of the constituent parts (ཀྱི་, for example, is simply the genitive Case particle
particle "of") , but rather from the particul ar concatenati oni̅of them . ཚེThus, while ཀྱི་ + ཡོད་པ་
རེད་
expresses present tim e, the sam e particle wi th the li nki ng v erb རེད་ (ཀྱི་ + རེད་) expresses
future ti me. i̅ i̅
Before exami ni ng som e examples of present tense sentences, note should be
made of the different fo ms th at som e of the present particles m a nifest. Lik e the
i nstrum ental case particles di scussedabove, these particles Ch ange form i n accorda nce
wi th the fi nal letter of the immediately preceding syllab l e
གི་ and གིན་ occur after ག་, ང་ and vowels (e.g., གཏོང་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་)
ཀྱི་
and ཀྱིན་ occurafter ད་, བ་ and ས་ (e.g., གསོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་)
གྱི་
and གྱིན་ occurafter ན་, མ་, ར་ aund ལ་ (e.g., གཡར་ ་གྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་)
Now let us exami ne som e examp l es
a. སྟག་གཅིག་གིས་ལུག་གཅིག་གསོད་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
" གསོད་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
" གསོད་མུས་རེད།
" གསོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་ པ་རེད།
dāà chī ki lu̲g chīsȫö̀shi̲n y ɔ̲ ɔ̀reè
" shi̲ntuyɔ̲ɔ̀reè
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------ --------------- སྒྱུ


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