Lesson Three 59
Because th e verbs "to make" and "to sow" i n c. and d. have a present tense stem , the
usual meani ng is easy to identify. ཚེ་ d.
d. དཔིད་དུས་ཞིང་པ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་སོན་འདེབས་པ་རེད།
jīdüǜshi̲ŋbə nāmki sȫn de̲bəreè
spring time fa mer pl. by seed plant usual compl.
In spri ng, farnmers pla nt seeds. i̅ i̅
Note again that i f past tense were i ntended the sentence would have been written usi ng
the past tense stem , e.g.,
e. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཞིང་པ་ནམས་ཀྱིས་སོན་བཏབ་པ་རེད།
jīdüǜshi̲ŋbə nām ki sȫn də̅bəreè[ ]
spri ng time farnler pl. by seed plant past compl.
In spri ng, farnlers pla nted seeds.
i̅However, with a one stem verb such as the verb "to come" (ཡོང་) , only context
di fferenti ates between past and usual tenses.
f. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཁོ་འདིར་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
jīdüǜkode̲e̲ yo̲mbareè
spri ng time he here come past compl.
In spri ng he came here.
g. དཔྱིད་དུས་ཁོ་འདིར་ནམ་རྒྱན་ཡོང་བ་རེད།
jidüǜk ō de̲e̲ na̲mgy ünyo̲ŋwareè [ ]
spri ng time he here usually come usual compl.
In spring he usually comes here.
3.7 Future tense
The future tense is fornled by using the future stemHof the verb alone or by joini ng
the future or nonpast stem of active verbs to one of the following complements
Thirdperson S econdperson First person
vb. + གི་རེད་ vb. + གི་རེད་ vb. + གི་ཡིན་
̅ i̅ The future complement consists of the genitive particle (གྱི་, ཀྱི་, etc.) with a [ ]
li nki ng verb. A s with the past tense, however, note should be tak en that the classical sty l e
omits the verbal complem ent (as i n examples c.-e. below) .
a. ཁོས་དེབ་ཞིག་ཉོ་གི་རེད།
kȫö̀te̲b Chñu̲gireè
heby b ok one buy fut.-compl.
རྞ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------


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