62 - Lesson Three
monk sby m onastery which built past compl.
i̅Which monastery was bui lt by the monks? i̅
First and second person constructions observe the following patterns
m. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ཆོས་གསུངས་བས
kēraŋki chȫö̀ sūmbɛɛ̀
y ouby religionsay (h.) pasti̅compl ?
Did y ou give reli gi ous teachi ngs?
n. ངས་ཆོས་བཤད་པ་ཡིན་ nɛ̲ɛ̀
nɛ̲ɛ̀ chȫö̀shɛ̅ɛ̀ bəyi n
iby reli gion say past compl
Igave reli gi ous teachi ngs.
o. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ཤ་ཉོས་སས་མ།
kēraŋki shāñö̲ö̀ sam
youby meat bought past compl.?
Did you buy meat?
p. ངས་ཤ་ཉོས་པ་ཡིན། ŋɛ̲ɛ̀
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ shā ñö̲ö̀bəy in
iby meat bought past compl.
Ibought meat.
q. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ག་རེ་ཉོས་པ་ཡིན་ན་ [
kēraŋki ka̲re ñö̲ö̀bəyi nam [Standard spoken would simply beñö̲ö̀ baa.]
youbyi̅what bought past compl. ?
What did you buy?
r. ཁྱེད་རང་གིས་ག་རེ་ཉོས་སམ།
kēraŋki ka̲re ñö̲ö̀sam
youbyi̅what bought?
What didyou buy ?
3.9 Sentence fi nal marker
Literaury Tibetan denotes the end of a sentence by redup licati ng the fi nal l etter of
the verb and addi ng the vowel "o." For example, རྒྱབ་བོ་ would be written i n place of རྒྱབ་ པ་
རེད་
When verbs end i n a vowel, the particle འོ་ is added to the stem, e.g., ཉོའོ་
ཨྃ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ཚུ


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