74 - Lesson Four
4.6.4 Grammatical notes
lThe first segment consists of གནའ་ར་ བས་སྲུ་ཡུལ་ཞིག་ཏུ་རྒྱལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་
i̅It begi ns with a typical timeslot phrase (that is, with a phrase i ndicati ng when
the action took place) . In thi s i nstance, the tim e-slot phra se i s གནའ་ར་ བས་སུ་ . It consists of
the word "ancient time" (གནའ་ར་ བས་) and the dativelocative particle (inat) . Thisis
followed by a clause specifyi ng the location of the action thatconsists of a nouun (ཡུལ་------
place, countrry) , the i ndefi nite article "a" (ཞིག་) , aund the dativelocative (ཏུ་) . T ogether these
convey the meani ng "i n a placecou ntrry" (ཡུལ་ཞིག་ ཏུ་) .
After thisi̅we finally get to the heartof the first clause, namely "a ki ng existed"
(རྒྱལ་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད་) . This construction is, therefore, basically a simple exi stential sentence i̅
("There existeda king") with two sets of modifiers explaining whenand whene the king
existed.
2. The next segment consists of. ཁོང་ལོ་བཞི་བཅུ་རེད་
It is a simple linki ngi̅verb construction "He is 40 years old". The subject is "he
(honorific) " (ཁོང་) , the object is "yearage (ལོ་) + 40 (བཞི་བཅུ་) , and the li nki ng verb is རེད་ .
3. The next clause consists of. ཁོང་ལ་བུ་མོ་མཛེས་པོ་ཞིག་ཡོད།
This is a simple existential constructi on expressi ng possessi on "to the ki ng there
was a daughter." The object i nthis clause, "daughter" (བུ་མོ་) , is modified by the adjective
"beauti ful" (མཛེས་པོ་) , which follows it. The subject + dativelocative segm ent, ཁོང་ལ་ ("he
to") , alternatively could have been expressed as "to the ki ng" (རྒྱལ་པོར་) or "to that ki ng"
(རྒྱལ་པོ་དེར) .
4. The next segment consists of. ཡུལ་དེར་ ་རྔོ་ན་པ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞིག་འདུག་
This is still another simple existential constructionthat begi ns with a location slot
phrase ཡུལ་དེར་ ("place + thatto" or "i n that place") . It i si̅foll owed by a simple subject
("hu nter" ------ རྔོན་པ་) m odified by the adj ective "poor" (སྐྱོ་པོ་) Thus, thi s existe ntial
construction conveys the meani ng "there was a poor hunter i n that place." The word
order can be reversed with no basic change in meaning རྔོན་པ་སྐྱོ་པོ་ཞིག་ཡུལ་དེར་ ་འི་ དུག་
5. The next segmenti̅consists of. ཁོར་ ་བུ་གསུམ་ཡོད།i̅ i̅ i̅ This
This existentiali̅sentence convey s possession "to him (ཁོར་ ") there existed (ཡོད་)
three (གསུམ་) sons (བུ་) (i.e., he had three sons) ."
6. The next segment consists of. བུ་རྒན་པ་འདི་ལོ་ཉི་ ཤུ་རེད་
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------


tibetan OCR www.dharmabook.ru
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*