76 - Lesson Four
i̅The next phrase i ndicates the location of the verbal action (i.e., i n the mountains) ,
which breaks dow n i nto "m ountai n" (རི་) + "to" (ལ་) .
i̅i̅The verbal clause follows thi s. The verb i n this clause is a compou nd verb
consisti ng of the noun "herbivorous wildanimal" (རི་དྭགས་) + རྒྱབ་, anauxiliaury verb that
typic ally verbali zes nouuns (makes nou ns i nto verbs or creates verbal phrases out of
nou ns) . Thi s com bi nati on produces the standard Ti betan phurase "to hunt."
It, i n tuurn, is m odified by བཞིན་པར་ , one of the present tense complements which
convey s the idea that the subjects were in the process of doi ng the verbal action,
"hunti ng." However, the sentence is not a complete sentence as would have been the case
if the verb complement had been བཞིན་ཡོད་ or བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད་ Instead, it conveys the idea
that while ini̅the state of doing thei̅hunti ng, something else occurred. That somethi ng else
is explai ned i n the next clause, which conti nues until the verb རྒྱ་ བ་ i n clause two.
i̅The subject of clause two is not overtly specified, but is the same as that i n the
precedi ng clause, i.e., the hu nter and the son. The object of thi s clausei̅i s "the white
animal, " which breaks down i nto "animal" (དུད་འེགྲོ་̅) modified by the adjective "white"
(དཀར་པོ་) . In tuurn, it is m odified by an i ndefi nite article and the dativelocative (ཞིག་ལ་) ,
conveying "toa (white animal) ."
This is followed by a compound verb phrase consisting o0 the verb ནྟི་རྒྱབ་, "to
snaretrap."
This clause does not contai n a fi nal sentence compl eme nt. Instead the temporal
connector རྗེ་ ས་ convey s the idea that after snari ng the completely white animal,
somethi ng happened. Thus, the two clauses precedi ng the clause connector coul d be
glossed as " after snari ng the comp l etely white anim al wh ie (bei ng i n the state of)
hunting i n the mountai ns." Thisstri ngi ngi̅together of clauses where English would use
separate sentences is ty pical of literaury Ti betan style. A s the readi ng selections i n thi s
book become more di fficult, you will encounter whole pageswhich consist of clauses
strung together without any final sentence break. Thus, a goal of this book is to
familiari ze you with this style and teach y ou how to make the appropriate breaks
y ourself.
T he third clause (པ་ཕས་བུ་ར་འདི་དུད་འགྲོ་དངོས་གནས་རེད་དམ་ཞེས་དྲིས་པའི་རྗེ་སུ་) begins with the
the subject "father" i n the instrumental (i̅པ་ཕས་) , immediately followed by the object, "the

son, " i n the dative-locative (བུར་) . Thi s literally translates as "by the father to the son."
It i s fo110 wed by a direct quote from the father. A s was explai nexd earli er, such
quotes are 0 ny mark ed at their conclusion, so th at the reader m ust discern thi s by the
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