Iesson Four7.7
meani ng of the words and by the quotation particle ཞེས་ The quote itself is a complete
linking verb sentence, "Is thisreally an animal?" ((འདི་དུད་འགྲོ་དཌྭོས་གནས་རེད་དམ་ ་) , followed by
thei̅ quote particle (ཞེས་) and then by the verb དྲིས་ ("ask ") i n the past tense stem. Thi s active
active verb goes with the earlier subject, "by the father, " maki ng the overall structureby
the father rothe son, aske . The quote conveys what was asked.
Here agai n, Tibetan sy ntax does not use a complete sentence endi ng (for example,
asentence such as "The father ask ed the son, " It thi s really an animal ?༔་) . Instead, thi s
clause is li nked to the next one by the temporal clause connective པའི་རྗེ་ ས་སུ་ T hus, after
aski ng . . ., somethi ng happe ned.
T he fourth clause begi ns with another timei̅word, "immediately" (ལམ་ ་སེང་) . It is
fol l owed by the subject, "that animal" ((དུད་འགྲོ་དེས་) i n the i nstrumental case, and then the
object, "the hunter" (རྔོན་པ) i n the dative-locative case (རྔོན་པར་) .
i̅i̅These are foll owed by another direct speech quotation, rnade "by the animal, "
which itself consists of two sentences. The first sentence i s the simple li nki ng verb
sentence, " Iam not an animal ((ང་དུད་ུ་དའིགྲོ་མིན་) ."i̅The second sentence is another i nki ng verb
se ntence, " Iarn a goddess ((ང་ལྷ་མོ་ ཡིན) ." This direct speech is followed by the quotati on i̅
rnarker (ཞེས་) and the noun-active verb combi nation ལན་བཏབ་, rneani ng "to answer." T his
verbal phrase consists of the nou n "answer" (ལན་) plus the past tense stem of the verb
"thurow" or "cast" (འདེབས་) . T hi s verbal phrase ("answered") goes with the subject "by that
animal (དུ་ད་འི་ གྲོ་དེ་རྭས་) ." Thus, the clause m eans, "That animal aunswered (to) the hu nter, "Iam
not an aunimal. Iam a goddess."
Thi s is foll owed by the fi nali̅past tense complement (པ་རེད་) . The entire segm ent
reads " A fter snari ng the animal whi[e (bei ng i n the state of) hunti ng i n the mou ntai ns,
the ather said to hi s son, ' Is this really aun animal?" aund after sayi ng this, immediately the
animal replied, "Iam not an animal. Iam a goddess."'
i̅T he structure of this segment is . . . རི་དྭགས་རྒྱབ་བཞིན་པར་ [while hunti ng wild
animals] . . . ནྟི་རྒྱབ་རྗེས་ [after snari ng] . . . དྲིས་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ [after aski ng] . . . ལན་བཏབ་པ་རེད
[answered].
9. The next segment consists of five clauses l. རྔོན་པ་དང་བུ་གཉིས་ཀར་ཆོས་ལ་དད་པ་འདུག།2. བྱས་
ཙང་ཁོ་
གཉིས་ཀྱིས་དུད་འགྲོ་དེ་གློད་རྗེས[ 3. དུད་འགྲོ་དཀར་པོ་དེརྭས་ཁོ་གཉིས་ལ་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞེས་ཟེར་པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ 4. ལམ་སེང་
ཕ་ལམ་འོད་ཆེམ་ཆེམ་ཞིག་སྤྲད་པ་དཔ་དང། 5. ད་དུང་ཐ་ཁ།ས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞེས་བཤད་པ་རེད།
T he first clause i s ai̅simp le exi stentiali̅sentence conveyi ng that the subject
possessed somethi ng, i n this case "faith i n reli gi on." A s usual i n suc h constructi ons, the
compound subject (hunter and son) is placed i n the dativeIocative case"to the hunter
རྞ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------------------------------- --------------- ------ --- ------------·


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