7.8 - Lesson Four
and the son both" (རྔོན་པ་དང་བུ་གཉིས་ཀར་ ་) . It is followed by the i ndirect object "reli gion" (ཆོས་
ལ་)
. and the direct object " faith" (དད་པ་) . Fi nally , the exi ste nti al verbi̅འདུག་ occurs.
Together they convey "to both the hunter and son, there existed faith i n reli gion."
The second clause begi ns with a clause connector (བྱས་ཙང་ " because" or i̅
"c onsequently.") placed at the start of the second clause rather th a n at the end of the first
clause. Other common clause connectors used i n this manner (i.e., that go i n this slot) are
ལྷག་པར་ ("moreover" or "in particular") , འོན་ཀྱང་ ("nevertheless") , དེ་ ས་མ་ཚད་ ("not only
that") , དེས་ན་ ("therefore") , དེ་མིན་ ("besidesthat") , ད་དུང་ ("still, " "fuuthernmore, " "once
again") , དེ་ནས་ (afteri̅that, then) and དེ་བཞིན་ ("similarly") . i̅ i̅
This phrase is followed by the subject (ཁོ་གཉིས་) + the i nstrum ental case partic le
(ཀྱིས་) , conveying "he two + by" or "by those two". Immediately, therefore, one looks fori̅
an active verb, which i n this clause is the verb གློད་ ("to release, let go") . The object here i s
དུད་̅འགྲོ་དེ་ ("that animal") , so that the sentence reads, "Consequently, those tworeleased the
animal." This is fol lowed by the tempxoral clause connective རྗེས་ ("after\'\') i̅ i̅
i̅i̅ Clause three begi ns with the subject (དུད་འགྲོ་) , but this tim e it is m odifi ed by the
adjective "white" (དཀར་ ་པོ་) , the demonstrative "that" (དེ) , and the i nstrumental particle (ས་) .
Together these mean "by that white animal." i̅ i̅
i̅This is followed by the i ndirect object "those two" together with the dative
locative partic l e, i .e., "to those two" (ཁོ་གཉིས་ལ་) . The direct object comes next i n the fornm
of a direct quote"thank y ou" ((ཐགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་) . ཚེThi s i s fol l owed by thei̅ quote marki ng particle
(ཞེས་) and the active verb "to say" (ཟེར་ ") . ཟེར་ " is a one stemi̅verb with noi̅special past tense
fornm. Together these componments convey "By that white anim al, said "Thank you" to
the two of them." It is followed by the temporal clause connective པའི་རྗེས་སུ་ ("after") , so
th at the e ntire u nit m ea ns "after the white animal sai d, . . . " i̅ i̅ The
The fourth clause indicates what happened after the white animal spoke. It has no
overt subject, the subject i̅beingi̅implicit, i.e., bei ng cauried over from the previous clause
(དུད་འགྲོ་དཀ་ར་པོ་དེ་ ས་) . There is no simple way to ascertai n thi s other than context.
Them ai n verb i n this clause i s the past tensei̅stem of the active verbi̅ " give" (སྤྲད་) ,
so one would expect a subject i n the i nstrum ental. Si nce there is none, onei̅immediately
backtrack s toi̅thi nk which of the previ ous subjects seem appropri ate. Here it obvi ously i s
"th e whi te ani m al."
ཚེThe fourth c l ause has no subject. It starts with thei̅ time-slot word "at once" (ལམ་
སེང་)
, followed by the object, "a diamond" (ཕ་ལམ་) , modified by the adjective phrase
"glittering" (འོད་ཆེམ་ཆེམ་) . Thei̅past tense stem of theactive verb "give" (སྤྲད་) follows i̅
these. Thus, an unnamed subject gave a glittering diamond to an unnamedindirect object,
------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------ ------ --------------- ------------------------------------------------------


tibetan OCR www.dharmabook.ru
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*