Lesson Four79
or "At once (he) gave a glitteri ng diamond."This clause is then li nked to clause five by
the connective particle "and" (པ་དང་) .
Clause five starts with once again" (ད་དུང་) , one of the clause connectivesthat
occur at the startof the second of two clauses. It i s foll owedby a direct quote and the
quote mark er ((ཐགས་རྗེ་ཆེ་ཞེས) , the subject and object are agai n left implicit. This clause e nds
with the past tense stem (བཤད་) of the active verb" say " (ཤོད་) , and the པ་རེད་ verbal
complem ent . The structure of this long segm ent, therefore, i s
.. . འདུག་ [exists] . . . བྱས་ཙང་ [consequently] . . . གློད་རྗེས་ [afterreleasi ng] . . . ཞེས་ ཟེར་པའི་རྗེསུ་
[after sayi ng] . . . སྤྲད་པ་དང་ [gave and] . . . བཤད་པ་རེད། [said] i̅
10. The next segment consists of a single active sentence དེ་ནས་དུད་འགྲོ་དཀར་ ་པོ་དེ་རྭས་གནམ་ལ་
འཕུར་
i̅It begi ns with the timesloti̅phrase " after that" (དེ་ན་ ས་) , followed by the subject i n
the i nstrumental, "by that white animal" ((དུད་འགྲོ་དཀར་ ་པོ་དེས་) . i̅
i̅Then the l ocati on of the verbal action, "toi n the sky " (གན་ མ་ལ་) , i s e ncou ntered.
And fi nally, there is the active verb " fly " (འཕུ་ར་) . Th us, "after that, by that white animal ,
flew to the sky."
ll ཚེ་ Thei̅next segm ent consists of four clauses l . པ་ཕས་དགའ་རྗེས་ 2. མཆི་མ་གཏོང་ བཞིན་པར་ 3. ད་
ང་ཚོ་
ཕྱུག་པོ་རེད་ཅེརྭས་ལབ་རྗེས་ 4. ཕྱིར་ལོག་བྱས་
The first clause begi ns with the subject i n thei̅i nstrumental case, "by the father"
(པ་ཕས་) . It is followed by the verb "be happy" or "to like somethi ng" (དགའ་) and the i̅
temporalconnective རྗེས་ ("afterwards") . It conveys th at the father became happy at thi s,
and after that, somethi ng happened.
Clause two explai ns what he did. He cried, literally "shed tears" (མཆི་མ་ ་གཏོང་) . The
present comp l ement བཞིན་པར་ foll owi ng གཏོང་ i ndicates that whie bei ng i n the state of
"c ryi ng, " somethi ng else happe ned.
Clause three is a direct quote i n the fornl of a linki ng verb construction meani ng
"Now we arerich" (i̅ད་ང་ཚོ་ཕྱུག་པོ་རེད་) . ཚེThis clause beginswith a time-slot word "now" (ད་) ,
followed by the subject, "weus" (ང་ཚོ་) , the object "rich" (ཕྱུག་པོ་) , and the li nking verb "is"
(རེད་) .
The quoteis foll owed by the quote marker (ཅེ་ ས་) and one of the verbs that means
"to say " (ལབ་) , foll owed by the temporal clause connector རྗེས་ ("after") . Note that the i̅
quote marker here is ཅེས་ rather than ཞེས་, because the last letter of the word it follows is
རྞ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- ------------------ --------------- ------------------------------


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