80 - Lesson Four
ད་̅The rule for this is given i n section 4.4. Thus the construction now means, "...after he
said, "Now we arerich.""
T his and the two prior clauses joi ntly convey thatthe father, getti ng happy,
cried, and while doi ng this said, "ཚེNow we are rich." A nd after that, . . . (པ་ཕས་དགའ་རྗེས་
མཆིལ་མ་གཏོང་བཞིན་པར་ད་ང་ཚོ་ཕྱག་པོ་རེད་ཅེས་ལ་བ་རྗེས་) .
i̅Clause four consi sts of the verbal phrase "retuurned (home) '" (ཕྱིར་ལོག་བྱས་) , with the
subject, "they" bei ng implicit. Note that although there is no verb complement because
the verb i s i n the past tense stem , the construction i s clearly past te nse.
12. The next segment consists of three clauses l. རྔོན་པས་ཕ་ལམ་ ་དེ་ཚོང་པར་ ་བཅོང་རྗེས་ 2. ཞིང་ཁ་མ་ ང་
པོ་
ཉོས་པ་དང་། 3. ཁང་པ་གསར་པ་ཡང་རྒྱབ་སོང་།
i̅The first clause begins with the subject , "by the hunter" (རྔོན་པས་) , followed by the
object , "that diamond" (ཕ་ལམ་དེ་) , followed by the i ndirect object "to a trader" (ཚོང་པར་ ་) ,
and the active verb "sold" (བཅོང་) . Together they mean, "The hunter sol d that diamond to a
trader." This clause (a sentence i n English) is li nked to the next clause once agai n by the
temporal c lause connector "after. "
The subject of the second clause is carried over from the previous clause (i.e., "by
the hunter") . The clause actually starts with the direct object "field" (ཞིང་ཁ་) , fol lowed by
the adjective "many" (མ་ ང་པོ་) and the past stem of the active verb "buy" (ཉོ་ ̅i̅ ཉོས་) . Thus,
"after the hunter sol d the diam ond to a trader (he) bought ma ny fields." This clause is
i nked to the next one by the conjunctive connector "and" (པ་དང་) .
i̅The third clause agai n takes the subject ("by the hunter") as given. It begi ns with
the object, i.e., "house, " modified by the adjective " new" (གསར་ ་པ་) . Note also that ཡང་
(
"also") follows the adjective. This segm ent therefore means, " A fter the hu nter sold that
diamond to a trader, (he) bought many fields and also built a new house."
13. The next segment consists of a single active sentence དེ་ནས་བུ་དེས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོ་དེ་མ་ ནའ་
ར་བླངས་པ་རེད།
i̅T he sentence starts with the timeslot tern "after that" (དེ་ནས་) . Then comes the
subject i n the i nstrumental, "by thei̅son" ((བུ་དེརྭས་) , followedby the object, "that pri ncess"
((རྒྱལ་པོའི་སྲས་མོ་དེ་) , and finally the active verb, "took as a bride"i̅and the པ་རེད་ verbal i̅
complement (མནའི་མ་ ར་ ་བླངས་ + པ་རེད་) . Note that "bride" isrequired to to be in the dative-
locative (མནའ་མ་ + ར་ ་) .i̅T his is really an adverbial construction, but for the time bei ng it
should be simply considered an idiom. Thus the story concludes, "After that, the boy took
that pri ncess as (hi s) bri de."
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