tF ཟེསུ༔༔སུ༔༔སུ་སྒྱུU ཚུ---རྞྞཱཾ་ སྙ7 ཟེ
5. IInvol u ntary verbs and sente nces
i̅Involu nta ry verbs and sentences express an acti on or state which is not the result
of i ntentional action by a subject. The semantic difference between involuntaury verbs and
active verbs can be seen from the following sentences
a. [ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀས་] དམག་འཁྲཁུ་ ་བསླང་པ་རེད།
[ə̅m erik ɛɛ̀] m ə̅gdruù lām b əreè
[Americaby] war started past compl.
[A m eri ca]།starte d ath e war.
b. [ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀར་] དམག་འཁྲུག་ལངས་པ་རེད།
]ə̅m erikaa] m ə̅gdruù l a̲m b əreè
[A m erica-to] war started past compl.
A war started [i n A m erica]. i̅ i̅
The difference between these sentences is the difference between the verbs བླངས་
and ལངས་ While both could be translated as "started" in English, the first is aun active
verb and the second is a n i nv olu ntaury verb. The first sentence therefore convey s the i dea
th at a subject (he, they , A m erica, etc.) i nte nti onally started or i ncited a war whi l e the
second m erely expresses the i dea that a war started. The writer di d not wanti̅to i ndicate
an actor i n the second. This di fference would be more accurately expressed if the above
sentences were translated as "[ A meri ca] caused a war to start" aund " A war brok e out [i n
America]." Note that A m erica, the subj ect of thei̅first sentence, i s i n the i nstrum ental
case, i̅whereas i n the second sentence America is i n the dative[ocative case since it is the
recipient or site of the action------the war broke out in America. i̅
Involuntaury actions or states, of course, are often caused by somethi ng or
someone, for example, "Because the soldiers shot at the crowd, a war brok e out." A key
factor i n Ti betan sema ntics, therefore, agai n is whether the causal element is i ntenti onal
or u ni ntentional. In the sentence cited above, the cause of the war i s the shooti ng, but
since the shooting was not intended by the actors to cause a war, the i nvoluntary verb
"broke out" was used. The active verb would have been used if the meani ng to be
conveyed was that thei̅soldiers shot at the crowd so as to cause a war. In the first case, the
disturbance was aun uni ntended consequence. In the second, it was the i ntent of the
shooti ng. ཚེ་ c.
c. ཁོས་ ཉལ་བ་རེད།
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སྒྱུ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------ ------------------


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