84 - Lesson Five

kȫö̀ñɛ̲ ɛ̲bəreè
he-by slept past compl.
He slept (actively we nt to sleep) .
d. ཁོ་གཉིད་ཁག་པ་རེད།
kō ñī̀ kūbəreè
he slept past compl.
He slept (fell asleep) . i̅ The
The difference between c. and d. parall el that between a. and b. T he subject of c
i ntenti onally went to sl eep whereas the subject of d. u ni ntentionally fell asleep.
The སོང་ past complem ent i s often used with i nvol untary verbs
e. ཁོ་གཉིད་ཁག་སོང་།
kō ñī̀ kūùsoŋ
he slept past compl.
He sl ept (fell asleep) . i̅ ཚེ་ i̅ i̅ i̅
Note that i nvoluntary constructions do notrequire the subject phrase to be in the
i nstrum ental case. t ཚེ་ f.
f. སློབ་ཕྲུག་ཚང་མ་ན་བ་རེད།
lāpdra tsāŋma na̲ b əreè
student all sick past compl.
All the students got sick. i̅ i̅ i̅ [ ]
Examp le g. illustrates the m ore classical sty le (i . e., the style wi th out verbal c ompleme nts
such as བ་རེད) .
g. ཆུ་འཁོལ་།
chhū kȫȫ
water boi l edi̅
The water boi l ed.
h. མི་འི) ་ཁྱཁ།་རྗེས་།
mi̲di̲kyāàje
person this cold after [ ]
i̅A fter the person (man) got col d, . . .
i. ཉི་མ་ཆུ་ཚོད་བརྒྱད་པར་ཤ།ར་བ་རེད།
ñi̲m ə chūdzöö̀gy ɛ̲ɛ̀ bar shāābəreè
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- , ,
[A small group ofinvoluntauryverbs such as མ་ ཐོང་ ("to see") and ཤེསི་ (\'\'toknow'") are
exceptions to thisrule in that they require the subject to have the instrumental particle.
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