Lesson Five 85
su n o-clock ei ght-to rose past compl
The suuni̅rose at ei ght o"clock. i̅ i̅ i̅
In constructions such as i., the time numberrequires the dativelocative (བརྒྱད་པར་ "at"
eight o"clock) . i̅ i̅ i̅
First person i nvoluntaury past tense constructi ons comm only add the irregular v erb
བྱུང་ (" got") after the i nvoluntary verb stem. བྱུང་ will be i ndicated i n the i nterli near
translation by "got." སུ་ j.
j. ངས་ཟ་ཁང་དེར་ཁ་ལག་ཟས་རྗེས་ན་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ sa̲gan de̲e̲ k ālaà sɛ̲ɛ̀jeè na̲chu i̅
i-by restaurant that-to food ate after sick got
(I) got sick after eati ng at that restaurant.
k. ངས་དེབ་བལགས་རྗེས་གཉིད་ཁུག་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ te̲p lɔ̅ɔ̀jeè ñī̀ k ūhùchu
iby book read after slept got
Ifell asleep afterreading a book.
l. ངས་དེབ་ལོག་བཞིན་པར་གཉིད་ཁུག་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ te̲p lɔ̅ɔ̀shinbar ñī̀ kūùchu
iby book read while slept got
Ifell asleep while reading a book.
m. ཁ་ས་ང་ཚོ་ཁྱག་བྱུང་།
kɛ̅ɛ̅sa ŋa̲ndzokyāàchu
y esterday i pl. cold got
We got col d yesterday. i̅ i̅ i̅
T he present-usual complement in i nvoluntaury constructions can be any of the
presentusual fornms such as གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་ or གི་འདུག་ or just the verb itself. T he future
complement for both first and third person i s either གི་རེ་ ད་ or the verb stem alone.
n. གྲྭ་པ་མང་པོ་ན་གི་འདུག།

tra̲ba m ə̲ŋgu nə̲giì [ Note that i n spoken Tibetan the verb complement གི་ འདུག་ (du̲ù)
i̅becomes giì]
monk rna ny sick pres. compl.
Mauny monks are sick. ཚེ་ ཚེ་ o.
o. བཟོ་པ་འི) ་ཚོ་མ་ཁས་པ་ཆགས་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
so̲ba di̲ndzokɛ̅ɛ̅bachə̅ə̅giyɔɔ̀reè
worker these expert become pres. compl.
These workers aue becomi ng expert.
རྞ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --- --- --------------- ------ --------- ---------------------------------·


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