88 - Lesson Five
Thisyear they got goodproduction (goti̅a goodyield) . i̅ i̅ i̅̅
i̅བྱུང་ is also used as aun auxiliauryverb in active constructions. Here it i ndicates that
the acti on goes from a third person actor to a first person recipient [from heshe to m e].
The actor is placed i n the i nstrumental and the recipient in the dative[ocative.
e. ཁོས་ང་ལ་དངུལ་བཏང་བྱུང་།
kȫö̀ ŋa̲a̲ ŋǖǖ dānchu (diānchuuŋ)
he-by i to money sent got
He sent money to me.
f. ལས་བྱེད་པ་འདིས་ང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་སྤྲད་བྱུང།
lɛ̲ɛ̲jeba di̲ì ŋa̲a̲k ālaà drɛ̅ɛ̀ chu (drɛ̅ɛ̀chun)
official thisby i to food gave got
This official gavei̅me food. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅A nother function of བྱུང་ is the one we saw i n section 5.l (j., k., l. and m.) where it
joi ned with i nvolu ntaury verbs to fornm first person past constructions. Sentence g.
illustrates thi s use.
g. ངར་ན་བྱུང་།
ŋa̲a̲ na̲chu (na̲chuHŋ)
i-to got sick
Igot sick. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅Si nce བྱུང་ is used only for past actions, the verb "to come" (ཡོང་) is required i n
equivalent future constructi ons.
h. མོར་དངུལ་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
mɔ̲ɔ̲ŋǖǖy u̲ŋgireè
she-toi̅money come fut.compl.
i̅She wi ll get money. ཚེ་ i.
i. ཞིང་པ་ཚོར་སོན་གསར་པ་ཡོང་གི་རེད།
shi̲ŋbədzɔɔsȫn sāāba yu̲ŋgireè
farnmer pl.-to seed new come fut. compl.
Faurnlers will get new seed.
5.4 ྃ་ Tense aund temporals i n existential and li nki ng constructions
As i ndicated earlier, exi stential and li nki ng verbs do not i nflect to i ndicate te nse.
Iust as number is specified thurough context or modifying partic les, so too is tense
delimited thurough context or 0 ne 0 f a class of words expressing time, called temporals.
a. དེང་སང་བོད་ལ་རྒྱ་རིགས་འདུག།
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