Lesson Five 89
te̲ŋsauŋ pö̲ö̀la gyə̲ri duù i̅
these day s ti bet to chi nese existi̅
T hese day s there are Chi nese i n Tibet.
b. སྔོན་མ་བོད་ལ་རྒྱ་མི་འདུག།
ŋȫnma pö̲ö̀ la gyə̲mi du̲ù i̅
fornmerly tibet to chi nesei̅exist i̅
Fornnerly , there were Chi nese i n Ti bet. i̅
Note that only the "temporal" word changed i n examples a. and b.
c. དེ་རིང་ཁོ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་འདུག།
te̲riŋ k ō sa̲ganla du̲ùi̅
today he restaura nt to exi sts
T oday he i s at the restaura nt. i̅ ̅ i̅ i̅
Temporal words function the sarne way in linking constructions.
d. སྔར་ཁོ་དམག་མི་རེད།
ŋār k ō mə̅ə̅mi re̲è i̅
fornnerly he soldier is i̅
Fornmerly he was a soldier.
e. དེང་སྐབས་ཁོ་དམག་མི་རེད།
te̲ŋgəb k ō mə̅ə̅mi reè i̅
nowadays he sol dier is
Nowadays he is a soldier.
5.5 T empxorals i n active and i nvoluntaury constructions
Temporal words are also placed at the begi nni ng of active and i nvoluntaury
sente nces and clauses.
a. སྔར་ཞིང་པས་སོན་ཡག་པོ་བཏབ་པ་རེད།
ŋār shi̲ŋbɛɛ̀ sȫnya̲go də̅bbəreè[ ]
fornmerly farnmer-by seed good planted past compl.
Fornnerly , farnmers planted good seed.
b. ད་ལྟ་གྲྭ་པ་ཚོས་དེབ་གསར་པ་བཟོ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ta̲ nda tra̲badzöö̀ te̲p sāāba so̲shi nyɔɔ̀reè
now rnonk plby book new make pres. compl.
Now monks are making new books.
c. ན་ནིང་བཟོ་པ་ཚོང་མས་མེ་མདའ་བཟོས་སོང་།
nə̲niŋ so̲ba tsāŋm ɛɛ̀ me̲nda sö̲ö̀soŋ

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