90 - Lesson Five
last year worker allby gun made went compl.
Last year all the work ers m ade gu ns.
d. གཞེས་ནིང་སྨན་ཁང་འདིར་ནད་པ་མང་པོ་ཤི་བ་རེད།
shi̲ñiŋ mɛ̅ngaun de̲e̲ nɛ̲ba m ə̲ŋgu shībəreè [ Note that འི་ ིར་ is pronounced de̲e̲.]

yearbeforelast hospital thi sto patie nt ma ny die past compl
The year before last many pati ents died at thi s hospital.
e. ལོ་གསུམ་ཀྱི་སྔོན་དུ་ཁོས་ཟ་ཁང་ཆེན་པོ་གཅིག་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
lo̲ sūrngi ŋȫntu kȫö̀ sa̲gan chēmbo chīñö̲ö̀bəreè
y ear three of before to he-by restauraunt bi g one bought past compl.
Three years ago he ཚེbought a bigrestaurant.
f. 1967 ལོར་སྐྱེ་དམན་འདི་ཚོས་འཇིན་ཆས་མང་པོ་ཉོས[
1967 lo̲r gym ɛn di̲ndzöö̀dz i̲njɛɛ̀ m ə̲ŋgu ñö̲ö̀
1967 year women this plby fuurniture many bought
In 1967 , these women bought much fuurniture. i̅ i̅ The
The presentusual complement expresses usual past acti on when used with past
temporals. ཚེ་ ཚེ་ g.
g. སྔོན་མ་མི་དེ་ཚོས་ཞུ་མོ་བཟོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
ŋȫnma mi̲dendzöö̀sha̲mo su̲giyɔɔ̀reè
fornlerly people plby hat make pres. compl.
Fornlerly, those people used to make hats.
5.6 Verbali zers objectverb compounds
Many concepts that are expressed i n English through verbs, e.g., "to shoot, "are
expressed i n Tibetan thurough nou n-verb compounds. In these Constructions the verb
verbali zes the m ea ni ng of the nou n, e. g., གནམ་གྲུ་གྲུ་གཏོང་ ("to fly a plane") consi sts of the nou n
གནམ་གྲུ་ ("plane") aundthe verb གཏོང་ ("to send") . There are three main verbalizers
Pre̲se̲nt (no̲no̲a̲st) pa̲st Fu̲tu̲re̲
རྒྱབ་རྒྱག་ (gyə̲b gya̲à) (བ) རྒྱབ་ (བརྒྱབས་) (gyə̲b) རྒྱག་ (gya̲à) "to do
གཏོང་ (doŋ) བཏང་ (dāŋ) གཏོང་གཏང་ (dōŋ) "to send"
i̅བྱེད་ (che̲è) i̅ བྱས་ (chɛ̲ɛ̀) i̅ བྱ་ (cha̲) "todo"
While each of these verbs has i ndependent meaning, i n some i nstances the connection
between the noun aund the verb i s arbitraury. Let us now exami ne some commonly used
compounds. i̅
ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ towork ཁང་པ་རྒྱག་ to builda house
work house
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