96 - Lesson Five
He flew a plane y esterday. i̅ i̅ i̅
Note that the word for "ai plane" has no honorific fornt and that the entire phrase is made
honorific by maki ng the verb honorific "send" becomes གཏོ་ ང་བ་གནང་ i̅ ཚེ་ i̅Earlier
i̅Earlier wei̅saw that Tibetan uses different verbs to express "comi ng" (ཡོ་ ང་) and
"goi ng" (འགྲོ་) . A s i ndicated earlier, the honorific of both of these is ཕེབསི་
e. ཁོང་ལྷ་ས་ནས་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
kōŋ lɛ̅ɛ̅sa nɛ pēè bəreè
he (h.) l hasa from come (h.) past compl.
He came ཚེfrom Lhasa. (h.)
f. ཁོང་ལྷ་སར་ ་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
kōŋ lɛ̅ɛ̅sar pēè b əreè [ ]
he (h.) l hasa-to come (h.) past compl.
He went toLhasa. (h.) i̅ i̅ i̅ [ ]་̅ i̅
Note thati̅the use of ན་ ས་ and the dativel ocativ e particle ར་ i ndicate c learly which
meani ng is i ntended i n sentences e. and f. i̅
Most of the verbs already i ntroduced add གནང་ to make them honorific but some
have separate honorific fornls, e.g.
nh ར་ i̲ར་ ཉོ་
ཉོ་ གཟིགས་ "to buy"
ཉལ་ གཟིམ་ "to sleep"
གཉིད་བུག་ མནལ་བུག་ "to fall asleep"
ན་ སྙུང་ "to get sick"
ཟ་ མཆོད་ "toeat"
སྤྲོད་ (སྤྲད་) འབུལ་ (ཕུལ་) "to give"
རྒྱབ་ or རྒྱག་ སྐྱོན་ "toact"
བྱེད་ གནང་ or མཛད་ "to do"
འགྲོ་, ཡོང་ ཕེབས་ "to go, to come"
བ་9 The "causal" connectives. བར་པར་ ་བརྟེན་, སྟབས་, ཙང་, ཀྱེན་ (གྱིས་) , ཙན་, པས་བས་, གཤིས་, and
(པའི་བའི་) དབང་གིས་
T hese clause connectives express the idea of "because" i n the sense that because
of the action in clause V , clause y i̅occurs. They are used not only with active and passive
verbs, but also with li nking and existential verbs. They sometimes also convey the
meani ng of "by (means of) " or "accordi ng to" or "by the force of."༔་
a. ཁོང་གྲྭ་པ་ཡིན་པ་ར་བརྟེན་ཚོགས་འདུ་ལ་ཞུགས་པ་རེད།
ཟེ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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