98 - Lesson Five
They got vari ous taxes according to the quality of the estate.
5.10 The "when'" connectives. དུས་, སྐབས་, བའི་པའི་སྐབས་སུ་ (ལ་) , བའི་པའི་དུས་སུ་, རིང་,
,
These clause connectives tra nslate as "when" or "at the time of, " and link two
clauses so that the latter occurs at the time ot the fornler. The verb i n the first clause is
put i n the nonpast (prese nt or future) .
a. ཁོ་བོ་ད་ལ་འགྲོ་སྐབས་དེབ་མང་པོ་ཉོས་པ་རེད།
kōpö̲ö̀ lə drogəb te̲p m ə̲ŋgu ñö̲ö̀bəreè
he tibet to go when, book mauny bought past compl.
When he went to Tibet, (he) bought many books. i̅ i̅ i̅
The reader should take note that although this connective requires the first clause
verb to be in the non-past stem (འ་གྲོ་) , the overall tense of the sentence is controlled by the
verb and verb complement of the latter clause.
b. ཁོང་བོད་ལ་ཕེབས་དུས་ཕྱག་དེབ་རྙིང་པ་གཟིགས་ཀྱི་རེད།
kōŋ pö̲ö̀lə pēèdüchāādep ñīŋbə si̲ìgireè [ ]
he (h.) ti bet to go (h.) when, book (h.) old buy (h.) fut. compl.
When he ཚེgoes to Tibet, (he) will buy old books.
c. ཞིང་པ་ཚོས་པེ་ཅིང་ལ་སྡོད་སྐབས་རྒྱ་མི་མང་པོ་མཐོང་བ་རེད།
shi̲ŋbədzöö̀ bēiŋlə dö̲ ö̀ gəb gya̲mi m ə̲ŋgu tōmbareè
farnmer this pl by Beiji ng to stay when, Chinese many saw past Compl.
When the faurnmers stayed (lived) i n Beijing, (they) saw many Chi nese.
d. ངས་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་ཚེ་ངར་ ་བསོད་ནམས་ཕྲད་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ lāpdraa lobjoŋ che̲tse ŋa̲a̲ sȫnamHtrɛ̅ɛ̀chu ཏུ
iby schoolto study do when, ito sonam met past compl. ཏུ
When Iwas studyi ng at school, Imet Sonam. i̅ i̅ i̅ ཏུ
Note that the verb ཕྲད་ ("meet") requires the subject (ང་) to be i n the dativelocative (ངར་) ཏུ
case. ཚེ་ ཏུ
e. མོ་སླེབས་པ་ན་ཁོ་ཕྱིན་སོང་། ཏུ
mo̲ lēèbana k ō chīnsu ཏུ
she aurnve when he went past compl. ཏུ
When she arrived, he went. ཚེ་ ཏུ
f. རི་བོང་དེ་སླེབས་པ་ན་འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་གིས་བསད་པ་རེད། ཏུ
re̲gon de̲ lēbana da̲mseŋ chīki sɛ̅ɛ̀ bəreè ཏུ
rabbit that aurive when lion one bykilled past compl. ཏུ
When that rabbit arrived, a lion ki lled (him) . ཏུ
སྒྱུ
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