Lesson Five 99

Sometimes སྒང་ or པའི་སྒང་ལ་ c onveys a similar m eani ng "at the poi nt or time of." For
example
g. ངས་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་པའི་སྒང་ལ་ངར་བསོད་ནམས་ཕྲད་བྱུང་།
ŋɛ̲ɛ̀ lāpdraa lopjon che̲bɛganl ə ŋa̲a̲ sȫnamHtrɛ̅ɛ̀chu
iby schoolto studyi̅ do whe n, ito sonam met past compl.
i̅ When (I) was studyi ng, Imet Sonam. ཚེ་ i̅
This would differ from ངས་སློབ་གྲྭར་ ་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་པའི་དུས་ལ་ངར་ ་བསོད་ནམས་ཕྲད་པ་རེད་ in the sense that
སྒང་ implies that a specific i nstanceis i ndicated whereas when དུས་ and རིང་ are used, a
longer periodis convey ed. It should be noted that སྒིང་ can also be used at the end of a
se ntence.
h. ཁོ་འགྲོ་དུས་ཁོང་ཚོ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་པའི་སྒང་རེད།
kō dru̲düǜkōndzo sa̲ganləkālaà sa̲beganrèe
he go when he pl. restaurant to f od eat when be
i̅When he went, they were (i n the act of) eati ng at the restaura nt.
i. ཁོས་སློབ་གྲྭར་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་པའི་རིང་ལ་དེརྭབ་གསུམ་བལ་གས་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀l āpdraalopjoŋ che̲bɛri ŋlə te̲p sūm lɔ̅ɔ̀bəree
heby schoolto study whe n book three read past compl.
i̅ He read three book s when he stu di ed i n school. i̅
This use of རིང་ here conveys that the action (the "readi ng") took place "duri ng" the period
from when he begaun sch ol to when he fi nished it.
5.llThe "gerundive" connectives དེ་, ཏེ་, སྟེ་, and ན་̅ས་ i̅
i̅These clause c onnectives h ave multiple fu nctions. They are used accordi ng to the
followi ng ru l es i̅ i̅
དེ་ occurs after words endi ng i n ད་
ཏེ་
occurs after words ending i n ན་ར་ལ་ས་
ས་སྟེ་
occurs after words endi ng i n ག་ང་བ་མ་ (and vowels)
ནས་ occurs after all fi nals
They relate or li nk clauses i n three basic ways.
5.ll. IThe temporal-causal function
i̅T his function has a ange of meani ng that encompasses both རྗེས་ and སྟབས་ That is
to say, it conveys the idea that "a verbal action havi ng been done, somethi ng else
occurred, " or "asaresult of ༔་ or "because of" one action, another occurred. Unfortunately,
ཨྃརྫ་ ------ ------------------------------------------------------ --- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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