Lesson Five [0 [
a. ཁོས་སྔོ་ཚལ་འཁྱེར་ཏེ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ ŋōtsɛɛ kērde chīmbəreè
heby vegetable carry havi ng went past compl. i̅
He went carryi ng vegetables. (How did he go? Carryi ng vegetables, he went.)
b. ཁོས་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་ལན་བསྐྱལ་བ་རེད།
kȫö̀gɛ̅ɛ̀ gyə̲bde l ɛ̲ n gyɛ̅ɛ̅bəreè i̅
heby shout havi ng message delivered past compl.
He de ivered the message (i n a) shouti ng or y elli ng (manner) .
c. ཁོས་རྟ་བཞོན་ཏེ་ནང་ལ་ལོག་སོང་།
kȫö̀ dā shö̲nde na̲nlə l ɔ̲ɔ̀soŋ [ ]
heby horse rode having home toretuurned past compl.i̅
He retuurned hom e on horseback (How di d he retuurn ? Ri di ng a horse, he retuurned.)
d. རྔོ་ན་པས་མེ་མདའ་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་བསྡད་པ་རེད།
ŋȫmbɛɛ̀ me̲nda gy ə̲bde dɛ̲ɛ̀bəreè
hunterby gun shoot havi ng stayed past compl.
The hunter stayed (there) shooti ng a gun.
e. ཁོས་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་མེ་མདའ་རྒྱབ་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀gɛ̅ɛ̀ gy ə̲bde me̲nda gy a̲bəreè
heby shout havi ng guun shot past compl.
Shouti ng, he shot the gun. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ Example
Example e. represe nts a ty pe of constructi on that is somewhat am bi guous i n that it coul d
convey the idea that he shouted and then immedately shot the gun. In other words, the
two actions would be almost, but not completely, simultaneous. Only context wi ll
detern i ne which is the appropriate i nternretati on.
5. Il .3 The defi ni ng function i̅ i̅ i̅
In thi s role these connectives li nk two clauses so that the latter clause defi nes or
tells somethi ng specific about the fornmer. It can also give the reason for the fornner clause
(see example c. below) . Thesei̅connectives are used with both linking and existential verbs
verbs and i n place ཚེof them (as i n example a.) .
a. སྟག་འཚེར་ནི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཞིག་སྟེ། ཟ་ཆས་གཙོབོ་འབྲུ་རིགས་རེད།
dāgdzeni troŋse chīgde sa̲pjɛɛ̀ dzōwo dru̲ri g re̲è i̅ i̅
taktser asfor village one havi ng foodstuff m ai n grai ns is
Taktser is a village (whose) mai n fioodstuff is grai n.
b. སྟག་འཚེར་ནི་གྲོང་གསེབ་ཞིག་ཡིན་ཏེ། ཟ་ཆས་གཙོབོ་འབྲ་རིགས་རེད།
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