[02 - Lesson Five

dāgdzeni troŋse chīy i̲nde sa̲bjɛɛ̀ dzōwo dru̲rig re̲è i̅ i̅
taktser asfor village one is havi ng foodstuff mai n grai ns is i̅
Taktser is a village (whose) m ai n foodstuff is (vari ous ki nds of) gra i n.
c. ལྷ་ས་ནི་གྲང་སྟེ་ས་མཐོ་པོ་རེད།
lhɛ̅ɛ̅sani tra̲ŋde sā tōbore̲è i̅ i̅
lhasa asfor cold havi ngi̅area hi gh is i̅ i̅ i̅
(The reason why) Lhasa is cold, is because it is hi gh.
5.12 The "conjunctive" connectives ཅིང་ , ཞིང་, and ཤིང་
These connectives function i n a manner equivalent to the དང་̅connective i̅
encou ntered i n Lesson Three, and can be tra nslated as "and." They li nk clauses with
di fferent subj ects and di fferent tenses. i̅
These are used according to the followi ng rule
ཅིང་ occurs after words endi ng i n ག་བ་ད་
ཞིང་
occurs after words ending i n ང་ན་མ་འ་ར་ལ་ and vowels
ཤིང་ occurs after words endi ng i n ས་
a. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་ཤིང་། མོ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་བྱིན་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ l ɛ̲ ɛ̲ ga chɛ̲ɛ̀ shi ŋ mo̲ mɛ̅nganlə chīmbəreè
heby work did and she hospital to went past compl.
i̅He worked and she went to the hospital.
Di fferent tenses are expressed by changi ng the verb stem s and the verb complem ents.
b. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་ཤིང་། མོ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
kȫö̀lɛ̲ ɛ̲ ga ch ɛ̲ɛ̀ shiŋ mo̲ mɛ̅nganlə drowareè
heby work did and she hospital to gousual compl
He worked and she goes to the hospital.
c. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཙིང་། མོས་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་རེད།
kȫö̀l ɛ̲ ɛ̲ga che̲èji ŋ mö̲ö̀ mɛ̅nganlə dru̲giyɔɔ̀reè
heby work do and she hospital to go pres. compl.
He is worki ng and she is going to the hospital.
d. ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་ཅིང་། མོ་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
kȫö̀ lɛ̲ ɛ̲ ga chi̲giyöö̀ shi ŋ mo̲ mɛ̅nganlə dru̲giyɔɔ̀reè

heby work do pres. compl. and she hospital to go pres. compl.
He is working and she is going to the hospital. ཚེ་ e.
e. རྡོ་རྗེ་སློབ་གྲྭ་འབྲིང་བར་འགྲོ་ཞིང། བཀྲ་ཤིས་སློབ་གྲྭ་ཆུང་བར་ ་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
dɔ̲ɔje lāpxdra dri̲ŋwaa droshi ŋ trə̅shiì lāpdra ch ūŋwaa drowareè
སྦྲུ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------སྒྱུ


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