Lesson Five [07.
Or al ternatively ཚེ་ ཚེ་ ཚེ་ ཚེ་ f.
f. ཁོ་དཔེ་མཛོད་ཁང་ལ་ཡིག་ཚད་ཡག་པོ་ཡོང་ཆེད་སློབ་སྦོང་བྱེད་པར་འགྲོ་བ་རེད།
kō bēndzöganləyi̲gdzɛɛ̀ ya̲goyo̲ŋche l ōpjon che̲bar drowareè
he libraury to exam good come for study do i nf. go usual compl.
He goes to the libraury to study i n order to do well on the exam i̅
In colloqual Tibetan the i nfi nitive is pronounced "ga." This is sometimes written as ཀ་ or
ག་ For example ཚེ་ [ ]
g. ཁོས་དངུལ་ཁང་ལ་དངུལ་ལེན་ཀ་ཕིུན་ ་པ་རེད།
kō ŋǖǖganlə nǖǖ le̲nga chīmbəreè
he bank to money take i nf. went past compl.
He went to the bank to getmoney.
h. ཁོ་ཚོ་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་ག་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
kōndzo pö̲ö̀ bɛ kālaà sa̲ga drugireè
he pl. tibetof food eat inf. go fut. compl.
They will go to eat Tibetan food.
5. I6 The "agentive" verbal particles མ་ ཁན་ , མ་, and པ་བ་
i̅The agentive verbal particles are used with the nonpast stem of verbs to express
the i dea of "the one who does" the verbal acti on. Note that it converts the verb i nto ai̅
verbal nou n phrase which caun then sta nd as the subject of li nki ng, existential and active
constructi ons. It i s ཚེsom ethi ng like the "er" i n the English "baker" or "skater."
a. འདིར་སྡོད་མཁནུ་རེད་དམ།
de̲e̲ dö̲ñɛn sū re̲dami̅
here stay doer whois ? i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
Who is the person stay i ng here? (lit., The one who is stayi ng herewho is itr)
b. འདིར་སྡོད་མཁན་དེ་ང་ཚོའི་དགེ་རྒན་རེད།
de̲e̲ dö̲ñɛn de̲ ŋa̲ndzööge̲gɛnre̲è i̅
here stay doer that i pl.- of teacher is
That person stayi nghere i s our teacher.
c. ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་མི་ཁ་ ཤུས་འདུག།
lɛ̲ɛ̲ga che̲mi kāshɛɛ̀ du̲ù i̅
work do doer several exist
There are several workers (peoplei̅doi ng work) .
In the next example, the agentive verbal n0 un phrase ("thei̅one wh0 came from
Lhasa") modifiesa noun (via the genitive particle) so that it functions as arelative clause


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