Lesson Five [ [ [
instrumental case (རི་བོང་གིས་) and an active verb, "took revenge" (དགྲ་ཤf ལེན་) . It should be
noted that the rabbit i s one of Ti betan folklore"s fam ous trick sters.
2. The second segment consists of two clauses l. གནའ་ར་ བས་སུ་རི་བོང་དང་འི་དམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་ཞིག་
ནག
ས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་གནས་ཏེ་ 2. འཚོ་བ་སྐྱེལ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The first clause begins with a time slot word---"in the past" (གནའ་ར་ བས་སུ་) . It is
followed by the subject of the two clauses, a rabbit and a white lion (རི་བོང་དང་འདམ་སེང་དཀ་ར་
པོ་ཞིག་) . Note that there is no i nstrum ental particle followi ng the subject. Nornmally this
would conveyi̅that this was not an active construction. However, i n this case it is because
the verbs "to live" ཁཐུན་ ས་) and "to subsi st" (འཚོ་ བ་སྐྱེལ་) do not require the subject ("the
rabbit and thei̅ lion") to be i n the instrumental case. ཚེ་
Following the subject is the object phrase "in a densei̅forest" (ནགས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་
ནང་)
. It consists of "forest" (ནགས་ཚལ་) modified by the adjective "dense" (སྟུག་པོ་) and the
i ndefinite article (ཞིག་) . Together these m ean "a dense forest." i̅
They are li nked to the word "inside" (ནང་) by the genitive particle (གི་) so that i̅
together they convey "i nsi de of a dense forest. " It should be noted that the ternn "i nsi de"
almost always is li nked to the phrase or word it modifies by the genitive. Thus, "inside
the restauurant" woul d be ཟ་ཁང་གི་ནང་ལ་ i̅ i̅ i̅
The dativelocative paticle (e.g., ལ་ in the previous example) is also often used
together with ནང་ conveyi ng "at" or "to" the i nside of. The clause i n the readi ng exercise
couldjust as easily have been written as ནགས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་ལ་གནས་ However, whether
or not the dativelocative is present, the t anslati on remai ns the same. i̅ Followi
Followi ngi̅thi s com es the verb གན་ ས་ which means " dwell " or " liv e." T ogether they
convey, "A long time ago, a rabbit and a white lion, lived in a dense forest." i̅
i̅This clause is li nk ed to the second cl ause by the gerundive claui̅se connective ཏེ་,
which here functions to convey to the reader that two simutaneousactions occurredi
" (along with) living in a dense forest" (ནགས་ཚལ་སྟུག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ནང་ག་ནས་) something else follows.
i̅Clause two explai ns wh at follows. It consists of a verbal phrase that convey s
"bei ng i n the process of derivi ng their livelihood or subsisti ng" (འཚོ་བ་སྐྱེལ་བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད) . In
other words, " (the rabbit aund lion) were subsisti ng, livi ng i n a dense forest." Note also
that thei̅final verbi̅complement (བཞིན་ཡོད་པ་རེད་) convey s that they were i ni̅the act of doing
som ethi ng, albeit i ni̅this case the acti on is i n the past. Thi s tense dime nsi on is i ndicated
not by the verbs whic h nornmally imply presentusual tense, but rather by གནའ་ར་ བས་སུ་ , the
tempxorali̅word at the start of the story.i̅ ཚེ་ ཚེ་ ཚེ་ ཚེ་ 3.
3. The third segment c0 nsists 0 f a linking sentence རི་བོང་དང་འི་དམ་ ་སེང་གཉིས་ཁྱི་མ་མ་ ཚེས་རེད།
This is a simple linki ng sentence stating that the subject, "the two ot them------lion

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