[[ 2 - ཥ་ Lesson Five
and rabbit " ((རི་བོང་དང་འི་དམ་སེང་གཉིས་) ------ are or were neighbors. A gai n, tense is detern i ned
not by the verb (རེད) , but rather by context and the tempora[ wo d (གནའ་ར་ བས་སུ་) occurring
i n the previ ous clause. i̅ 4.
4. T he fourth segment consists of two clauses l. ཡིན་ན་ཡང་འི་དམ་སེང་གིས་ར་ང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཤེདུ་ཤུགས་
ཌྭོ་མས་ནས་ 2. རྟག་ཏུ་རི་བོང་ལ་འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
The first clause begi ns with ཡིན་ན་ཡང་ (" nevertheless") , one of those clause
connectives that are placed at the start of the second of two clauses rather than the end of
the first clause. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
ཚེ་ Followi ng thi s i s the subject placed i n the i nstrum ental case------"by the li on" ((འདམ་
སེང་གིས)
. T he prese nce of the i nstrume ntal partic le i ndicates that somewhere dow n the li ne
some action done by the lion will be stated thurough an active verb. It is common to scan a
segment to find this v erb, which here, is not ངོམས་ ("be showoffishconceited") , the first i̅
verb encou ntered, but rather i̅འཇིགས་ བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ ("threatenedi ntimi dated") , the second verb (in
clause two) . Thus, what the li on di d was "fri ghten" somebody.
Goi ng back to the first partof the clause, the subject is followed by ར་ ང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཤེད་
ཤུགས་ཌྭོམ་ ས་ནས་ This breaks down into the phrase ར་ང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཤེད་ ཤུགས་, which consists of "his
own" (ར་ ང་ཉིད) and "strength" (ཤེད་ ཤུགས་) , linked by the genitive particle (ཀྱི་) to create the
meani ng "hi s ow n strength." Then the verb "show off" (ཌྭོམ་ ས་) comes, maki ng the clause
convey "he showed off of his own strength." i̅
Clause onei̅is linked to clause two by the clause connector ནས་, which here conveys
the adverbial or simultaneous meani ng------that the action i n clause twoHoccurs i n the
maunner of clause one. In other words, "how did the lion fri ghten the rabbit (རི་བོང་ལ་འཇིགས་
བསྐུལ་
བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད) ------he frightened him by showi ng off his strength." Note that the
recipient of the action, "the rabbit, " is placed i n the dativel ocative (རི་བོང་ལ་) because the
the action went ro him. i̅ T
T his clause also contai ns the commonly used adverb རྟག་ཏུ་ ("always") . It modifies
the verb བྱེད་ aunsweri ng the questi on, " How or when did he do it?------he di d it alway s."
T his adverb could have been placed immediatelyi̅before the verb with nochange i n
meaning------རི་བོང་ལ་རྟག་ཏུ་འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད་ Similarly, རི་བོང་ལ་འཇིགས་བསྐུལ་རྟག་ཏུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་
པ་རེད་
would be correct. i̅ ཚེ་ i̅
5. T he fifth segment consists of three clauses l. རི་བོང་འ་ དམ་སེང་དཀར་ ་པོའི་བརྙས་བཅོས་ལ་དགའ་པོ་
མེད་སྟབས་ 2. ཉིན་ལྟར་ཁོས་བྲག་ཕུག་གི་མདན་དུ་བསྡད་ནས་ 3. དགྲ་ཤ་ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལེན་གྱི་རེད་བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་བཞིན་ཡོད་
T hefirst clause is an existential sentence conveyi ng at its core the meaning that
"the rabbit did not ike the bullyi ng" (རི་བོང་བརྙས་བཅོས་ལ་དགའ་པོ་མེད་) . This is a standard ཏུ
existential construction and is structurally identical with ང་ཤ་ལ་དགའ་པོ་མེད་ (" Ido not like
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ཚུ


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