Lesson Five l [ 3
meat"------or literally, "Iam without liki ng tofor meat.") i̅T he sentence has been expanded
by phrases such as "the white lion" ((འདམ་སེང་དཀར་ ་པོ) , which is li nked to "abuse" by the
ge nitive partic le (འི་) so that the larger phrase means "the abuse of the white lion."
T his clause is li nk ed to clause two by the "because" clause connective (སྟབས་) , i̅
thus " because the rabbit did not like the abuse------he di d somethi ng." That "somethi ng" is
expressed i n clause two. It begi ns with the timeslot phrase "everyday" (ཉིན་ལྟར་) . This is
followed by the subject i n the instrumental case (ཁོས་) . This is not rea ly necessaury si nce
the subject ("the rabbit") is the samei̅as i n the previous clause, but we added it to
emphasi ze the carryover of subjects i n multipl e clauses. i̅ i̅
Next comes the verbal phrase verb བྲཁ་ ་ཕུག་གི་མདུན་དུ་བསྡད་ It consists of the active
verb "sat [ivexdstayed" (བསྡད་) preceeded by a phrase i ndicati ng the l ocati on of the verbal
action------"i n front of a cave" ((བྲག་ཕུག་གི་མ་ དུ་ན་དུ་) . Note that, like ནང་, the w o d མ་ དུན་དུ་ ("i n
front") usually has the genitive case particle (གི་) linki ng it to the noun it modifies. i̅
After the verb བསྡད་, the clause connective ནས་ occurs, linking clause two with i̅
clause three. In this i nstance it conveys simultaneous action "i n the rnanner of sitti ng i n
front of a cave, somethi ng else happened." i̅ i̅ i̅ Clause
Clause three i ndicates what that "somethi ng el se" i s------ nam ely , "thi nk " (བས་མ་བླ་

གཏོང་) . Thus, the sk eletal sentence meauns. "sitti ng i n front ཚེof a cave . .i̅. he thought." The
phrase immediately preceeding "thought" (དགྲ་ ཤ་ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་ལེན་གྱི་རེད་) indicates what he i̅
thought. It is an i nterrogative active sentence aski ng, " How will he ཚེget revenge?" This
phrase breaks down i nto the compound verb "revenge get" (དགྲ་ཤf ལེན་) , modified by the
i nterrogative word "how" or "what ki nd of ༔་ (ག་འདྲ་ཞིག་) . The verb (ལེན་) is also modified by
the future tense complement (གྱི་ར་ ད་) . Together these mean " How will (I, one) get
revenge?" A ctually, si nce the actor is thi nki ng about him self, grammatically thi s woul d
have been more correct if it had been written usi ng the first person verb ཡིན་ དགྲ་ཤ་ག་འདྲ་
ཞིག་ལེན་གྱི་ཡིན་ i̅Nevertheless, both linki ng verbs occur and shoul d be expected.
i̅This is immediately followed by the main verb compound of the two clauses,
"thi nk " (བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་) . It consists of the noun "thought" (བསམ་ ་བློ་) aund the verbali zer གཏོང་
The three clauses shoul d be read as follows l. Because the rabbit did not like the
bullyi ng of the white lion, 2.every day he sat in front of a cave, aund whie doing that, 3.
he thought of how to get revenge or------སྟབས་ ------ན་ ས་------བསམ་བློ་གཏོང་བཞིན་ཡོད་
Note that the fi nal verb complement fol lowi ng "thi nk" (བཞིན་ཡོད་) conveys usual or
customaury acti on, and governs both clauses. Thus, "he use d to sit .... ཚེ་ ཚེ
6. The sixth segment consists of two clauses (sentences) l. ཉིན་ཞིག་རི་བོང་གིས་འི་དམ་ ་སེང་ལ་ཁ་སང་
ང་
ལ་ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་ཞིག་ཐུག་བྱུང་། 2. འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེརྭས་ཁྱེད་དང་མཐ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཟེར་གྱི་
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