[[ 4 - Lesson Five
འདུག་ཅེས་བཤད་ .
T he first sentence is l ong and complex. It starts with the time sl ot word ("one day"
ཉིན་ཞིག་) .i̅This is followed by the subject, "the rabbit" (རེ་བོང་) , i n the i nstrum ental casei̅
(གིས) . A s i ndicated above, this tel l s us immediately that further on there wi ll be an active
verb that will convey what he di d. That verb i s actually བཤད་ ("sai d") , which occurs only
toward the end of the second clause. i̅ i̅ ̅
Followi ng the subjecti̅phrase "by the rabbit" (རི་བོང་གིས་) i s the phrase "to the lion"
((འདམ་སེང་ལ་) , which is the object of thi s sentence. i̅
i̅The heart of the construction, therefore, is རི་བོང་གིས་འི་ དམ་སེང་ལ་ . . བཤད་ "The rabbit
said . . . to the lion." The remai nder consists of the direct speech quote, which i ndicates
what he sai d to the lion. Reiterati ng an earlier comme nt, quotes and direct speech are
di fficult to identi fy i ni̅Tibetan since they arei̅only marked at their conclusions by the
particle ཅེས་ ori̅one of its variants. Th us, i n this case, the direct ཚེ་ speech quotati on i s ཁ་སང་ང་
ལ་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་ཞིག་ཐུཁ་བྱུང་། འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེས་ཁྱེ་ ད་དང་མཐ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཟེར་གྱི་འདུག་------ཅེས་
This quote startswith the temporal-slot word ཁ་སང་ ("yesterday") , which is i̅
followed by the subject ("[ ") in the dativelocative case (ང་ལ་) . This couldjust as easily
have been writteni̅ངར་ . The presence of a subject i n the dativelocative immediately
suggests that this i s not an active constructi on and that somethi ng h appened to the speaker
speaker rather than was done by the speaker. Looki ng ahead for the verb, we see ཐུཁཐུ་
(
"meet") whichi̅fits this assumption because it is ani̅i nvolu ntaury verb which, i n fact,
requires the dativel ocative. Thus, the essence of this sub-unit i s ང་ལ་ . . . ཐག་ (" I
met. . .") . i̅ Theresti̅of
Theresti̅of the construction tells when he met---- "yesterday" (ཁ་སང་) , and who he
met------"a blue lion similar toyou" ((ཁྱེད་ར་ ང་དང་འེདྲ་བའི་འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་) .
This phrase ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་འ་ དམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་ ("a blue lion similar toyou") is an
example of a noun modified by the adjective followi ng it ("blue" སྔོན་པོ་) i̅and by a phrase
before it li nkedi̅byi̅the genitive particle ((ཁྱེད་ར་ ང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་) . The latter consists of the ternn
འདྲ་ བ་ (" like, '" '"similar'") and the conju nction དང་ ('"and'") , which m ust be placed between
འདྲ་བ་ and the word it modifies, i n this case "you" ((ཁྱེད་ར་ ང་) . In this usage, དང་ conveys the
meani ng "with." Thus the phrasei̅ཁྱེད་ར་ ང་དང་འདྲ་ བ་ m eans "similar with (to) y ou." This i s
then joi ned to "lion" by the genitive particle to create arelative clause ཁྱེད་རང་དང་འདྲ་བའི་
འདམ་སེང་,
which means "a lionwho is similar toyou." i̅
i̅Then com es the verbal phase ཐག་བྱུང་ ("m et") . We already k now from the subject
havi ng the dativeIocativei nstead of the i nstrumental p artic le ("to me" i nstead of "by
me") , that thi s clause would be either an existenti al or i nvolu ntary construction. Now we
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