Lesson Five [ 15
see that it is an i nvoluntary construction since the verb ཐུཁ་ means "to meet i nvoluntarily."
Thus, th e first person past tense verbal comp lement (as di scussed i n Lesson Three) བྱུང་ i s
used.i̅This ends the first clause of the rabbit"s direct speech"Vesterday, Imet a lion who
was similar to you." i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
But the rabbit"s direct discourse is not y et fi ni nshed. The next segme nt (འདམ་སེང་
སྔོན་པོ་དེས་ཁྱེད་དང་མཐུ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱི་ཡིན་ཟེར་ ་གྱི་འདུག་) presents the second part of the rabbit"s
comment. It begi ns with the subject i n the i nstrumental case------"by that blue lion" (འེདམ་
སེ
ང་སྔོན་པོ་དེས་) . This is followed by the object ("you") modified by the conjunctive དང་
("andwith") , and then the verbal phrase མ་ ཐ་རྩལ་འགྲན་གྱིཚེ་ཡིན་ ("wi ll compete i n strength") .
T his i s followed by the verbal phrase "say s" (ཟེར་གྱི་འདུག་) endi ng the discourse of
the blue li on. Thi s al so ends the speech of the rabbit to the whitei̅ i on. T his fi nish i s
mark ed by the quote mark eri̅particle (ཅེས་) and the verbi̅བཤད་ ("said") . These two, of
course, refer back toi̅the subject of the whole construction, the rabbit ((རེ་བོང་གིས་) . i̅
Consequently, the Ti betan is really a sentence within a sentence"By the rabbit . .i̅. said, "
with hi s comment bei ng another sente nce with its ow n subject and verb "Imet a lion
similar to you and he said that he will compete with you." The best strategy for
decipheri ng such constructions is first toi̅read thi̅rough the entire construction aund then to
reread it payi ng careful attenti on to the first subject and its verb. A fter this, the second
subject a nd its verb caun be l ocated aund the overalli̅structure of the construction will
become c l ear. This i s a very comm oni̅Ti betaun stylistic m ode and we will present many
other examples of it to facilitate i dentification and comprehensi on.
7.. The seventh segment consists of two clauses l. འདམ་སེང་དཀར་ ་པོས་ངར་ ་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་ 2. རི་བོང་ལ་
འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེ་ལམ་སེང་ངའི་རྩ་ལ་སྐད་གཏོང་ཞེས་བཤད་པ་རེད།
i̅The first clause (འདམ་སེང་དཀར་པོས་ང་ར་ ་སྐད་རྒྱབ་སྟེ་) consists of the subject (i n the
i nstrum ental case------[འདམ་སེང་དཀ་ར་པོས་] "by the white li on") followed by the verbal phrase
"roared i n anger" ((ངར་སྐད་རྒྱབ) . i̅
This clause is linked to clause two by the simultaneous clause connector སྟ་
However, the clause Connector སྟེ་ is somewh at u nclear i n this context. It can be taken to
convey simultaneous action------༔་ The white lioni̅said in a y elling or roari ng manner. . . ."' Or
it coul d be take to convey twoi̅related sequential acts such that the second act is done
after the first" Havi ng roared i n aunger, he said. . . ." Since the time gap of the second
alternative would be so sli ght, the di fference i s moot here. i̅ i̅
i̅i̅ The subject of the second clause isi̅the same as i ni̅the first clausei̅and is not
specifi ed. Thus, the second clause starts with the object li nked to the dativelocative ("to
the rabbit" རི་བོང་ལ་) , followed by an active sentence that i s a segme nt of direct di scourse
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