[[6 - Lesson Five
spoken by the white lion འདམ་སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེ་ལ་མ་ ་སེང་ངའི་རྩ་ལ་སྐད་གཏོང་ ("Summon that blue lion
to my presence at once") . The object of this sentence withi n a sentence is "thatblue lion"
(འདམ་ སེང་སྔོན་པོ་དེ་) , and the verb is "callsumm on" (སྐད་གཏོང་) . A locati on phurase i ndicati ng
where the lion should be called to ------"to my presence" (ངའི་རྩ་ལ་) ------and the timeslot word
"immediately " (ལམ་སེང་) follow the object phrase. It shoul d be noted that the ternn "to
(into) the presence" (རྩ་ལ་) requires its object to be i n the genitive ངའི་རྩ་ལ་ ("to the
presence of i ") . i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
T his segment concl udes with the quotati on marker (ཞེས་) and thei̅verb "sai d" with
the past compleme nt (བཤད་པ་རེད) . བཤ་ ད་ i s the verb that goes with the ori gi nal subject ((འདམ་
སེང་དཀར་
་པོས་) . The entire section, i̅therefore, conveys the idea that"The white lion, i n a
roari ng manner, said to the rabbit, "Bri ng that blue lion to me at oncet" ཚེ
8 The eighth segment consists of a single sentence རི་བོང་གིས་འི་དམ་ ་སེང་སྔོན་པོས་འདམ་སེང་ཁྱེད་ལ་
འཇོན་ཐང་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་ཅེས་ འུད་ཤོབ་ཤོད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ཅེས་བཤད་
i̅T his sentence isi̅a conti nuation of the rabbit"s comments to the ion. It, like others,
begi ns with the subject i n the i nstrume ntal case རི་བོང་གིས་̅ ("by the rabbit") . This i s
followed immediately by another quote, which begins with ai̅ noun (the subject of the
quote) i n the i nstrumental case འདམ་ སེང་སྔོན་པོས་ ("by the blue lion") . Thi s i si̅foll owed by a simple
simple exi stential construction (nou n + existenti al verb) "y ou have no abi lity " or m ore
literally, "to y ou there i s no abili ty " (འདམ་སེང་ཁྱེད་ལ་འཇོན་ཐང་ཡོད་ པ་མ་རེད) .
i̅ Thi s, i n tuurn, is foll owed by the quote m arker (ཅེས་) i ndicati ng the end of the direct
discourse of the blue lion. It is followed by the verbal phrase འུད་ཤོབ་ཤོད་ཀྱི་འ་ དུག་, which
means "says it i n a braggi ng manner, " this bei ng the rabbit"s embellishment. i̅ i̅
̅ Si nce this section is an i ndirect quote withi n a direct quote ("the rabbit said the
blue lion said) , the next two words (ཅེས་བཤད) end the discourse of the ori gi nal subject, the
rabbit (ར་ "བོང་གིས་) . The first of these two words is the quote marker, and the second is the
verb "say." Thus, the entire constructi on m eans "༔་ The rabbit sai d, "That other lion is
sayi ng braggi ngly, that y ou [the ori gi nal lion] are not capable." ཚེ་ 9.
9. The ninth segment consists of three clauses l. འདམ་སེང་དཀར་ ་པོ་དེ་ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟས་ནས་ 2. ཁོ་ད་ལྟེ་ག་
པར་
འདུག་གམ། 3. ང་ལམ་སེང་ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་ཁྲིད་ཞེས་རི་བོང་ལ་ལབ་པ་རེད།
i̅T his segment gives ཚེthe lion"sresponse. Nornlally it would start with thei̅subject i n
the i nstrume ntal case འི་ དམ་སེང་ "དཀར་ "པོ་དེས་ ("by that white lion") , but because the first clause
ends i n the i nvoluntaury verb ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟས་ ("got angry") , the subject does not require the
instrumental. T his clause འདམ་སེང་དཀར་ ་པོ་དེ་ཁོང་གྲོ་ཟས་ ("the white lion got angry") is i̅
followed by the simultaneous clause connective ནས་ so that it means, "The [ion, bei ng or
becomi ng angry, . . ."
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