Lesson Five [ 17

i̅ A fter thi s, the li on"s direct di scourse segment foll ows. It consi sts of two sentences.
The first is aunexistential construction, aundthe second an active verbconstruction l. ཁོ་ད་
ལྟ་ག་པར་
་འདུག་གམ། 2. ང་ལམ་སེང་ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་ཁྲིད་ཞེས་ (l ." Where is he now?------2. Take me at once to
him [hi s presence]") . ཚེ་ i̅ i̅
Note that the adv erb "at once" (ལམ་ སེང་) precedes the l ocati on of the verbal acti on,
ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་
(to the presence of him) . However, this clause could just as easily have bee n
written ང་ཁོའི་རྩ་ལ་ལམ་སེང་ཁྲིད་ i̅ i̅
The end of the direct speech is marked by ཞེས་, followed by the object of the
speech ("to the rabbit" རི་བོང་ལ་) and then the verb "say"i̅ (ལབ་པ་རེད) with its past i̅ i̅
complement. Thus, the constructionreally breaks dow n i nto འི་ དམ་སེང་གིས་ (implicit
subject) . . . རི་བོང་ལ་ལབ་པ་རེད་ ("[The lion] said . . . to the rabbit") . Note that the object, "the
rabbit, " could have been put at the begi nni ng of the construction, e.g., འདམ་སེང་གིས་རི་བོང་ལ་
..
. ལབ་པ་རེ་ ད་ Such alternative positioni ngs cause no problem when careful attention is
given to the markers accompanyi ng the subject and object, such as གིས་ and ལ་ ཚེ
10. The tenth segment consists of seven clauses l . རི་བོང་གིས་འི་དམ་སེང་དཀར་པོ་དེ་རི་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་གི་
རྒྱབ་ཏུ་ཁྲིད་རྗེས་ 2. གྲོན་པ་ཞིག་ལ་མཛུབ་མོ་བཙུགས་ཏེ་ 3. སེམས་ཅན་དེ་ཕ་གིའི་ནང་ལ་འདུག་ཅེས་ལན་བཏབ་ཅིང་། 4.
འདམ་སེང་
དེས་ངར་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ་ནས་ 5. ཁྲོན་པའི་ཁ་ལ་ཕྱིན་ནས་ 6. ལྟ་སྐབས་ 7.. གྲོན་པའི་ནང་ནས་འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་
u ཐོང་།i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
i̅T he first of these clauses starts with the subject i n the instrumental case ("by the
rabbit" རི་བོང་གིས་) . Thisi̅subject"s action is convey ed by the active verb "take" (ཁྲིད་) . i̅
Between these is the object of the taki ng, "the white lion, " and the l ocation of the taki ng,
"behinda big hill" ((འདམ་སེང་དཀར་ ་པོ་རི་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་གི་རྒྱབ་ཏུ་) .i̅Note that the word "behind" (རྒྱབ་ཏུ་) ,
like ནང་ and མ་ དུན་, must be joi ned to its object--- the big mountain------by the genitive i̅
particle. Thus, the first clause m eans, "The rabbit took ཚེthe li on behi nd a bi g m ou ntai n."
T his construction is li nked to the next one by རྗེ་ ས་, the "after" clause connective,
so that the translati on becom es " A fter the rabbit took the li on behi nd a bi g m ou ntai n."
The next clause consi sts of the verbal phrase "poi nted with a fi nger" (མཛུབ་མོ་ [ ]
བཙོགས)
preceded bythe l ocation of the verbal action (with the dativelocative) , "to a well"
(གྲོན་པ་ཞིག་ལ་) . Thi s clause does not contai n a subject (i n the i nstrumental) , i nstead it
assum es the same subject as the previ ous clause, i.e., "by the rabbit." ཚེ་
It is linked to the next one by the simultaneous clause connector ཏེ་. Thus the two
clauses now m ean " A fter the rabbit took the li on behi nd a bi g mountai n, poi nted to a
well and sim ultaneously . . . ." i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
Thei̅next clause (སེམས་ཅན་དེ་ཕ་གིའི་ནང་ལ་འདུག་) is an existential sentence which is said
by the rabbit------"That animal exists i nside that over there [referri ng of course to the well]."
------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------·


tibetan OCR www.dharmabook.ru
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*