[[8 - Lesson Five
This is followed by the maundatory quote marker, aund then an active verb meani ng i̅
"answered" (ལན་བཏབ་) . Thus, this subsecti on means, " (He) answered, That animal i s
(i nside that) over there."i̅The three clauses woul d now readi '" A fter the rabbit took the
lion behi nd a big mountai n, (he) pointed to a well and simu [taneous[y answered, "That
animal i s i nsi de thati̅over there." i̅ i̅
ཚེThis clause, in tuurn, is linked to the next one by the connective clause connective
ཅིང་, which is commonly translated as "and." i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
ཚེClause four (འདམ་སེང་དེས་ངར་ ་སྐད་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱབ་) starts with a subject i n the instrumental
((འདམ་སེང་དེས་) , so one k nows that down the line aun active verb will be encountered. That
subject ("by the lion") i s followed by the verb al phrase "roared i n anger l oudly " (ངར་སྐིད་
ཆེན་
པོ་རྒྱ་ བ་) .i̅Thus the clause translates as "The lion roared l oudly." i̅i̅
i̅i̅ It is linked to the ollowi ng clause by the clause connector ནས་ Here context
i ndicates that ན་ ས་ m eans "h avi ng done the verbal act." Thus the previ ous clause really
conveys "The li on, hav ingroared loudly, . . ." i̅ ̅ i̅ i̅
The stri ngi̅of four clauses nowi̅means " After the rabbit took thei̅lion behi nd a big
mou ntai n, poi nted to a well a nd simutaneousy answered, "That animal i s i nsi de th at
over there", and the lion, havingi̅roared loudly, . . ." i̅
The fifth clause starts with གྲོན་པའི་ཁ་ལ་ ("to the edge of the well") , the location of
the verb ཕིན་ ("went") . The subject of this clause is unstated, but context makes it
obvi ous that it is sti ll "the lion."The loc ation phra se parallels the structure encou ntered
above i n that the word "edge" is li nk ed to "well" by the genitive ((གྲོན་པའི་ཁ་ལ་) . Thus, this
clause means " (The lion) went to the edge of the well." i̅ i̅ This
This is linked to the sixth clause also by the ནས་̅connective which here conveys
that " Havi ng gone to the edge of the well, . . ."somethi ng happened. All five clauses
now mean " After the rabbit took the lion behindi̅a bi g mountain, (he) poi nted to a well
and simHutaneousy answered, 'That animal is i nsidei̅that over there", aun d the lion, h aving
roared loudly, went to the edge of the wel l and (having done that) . . . ."
The sixth clause consists of only two words the verb "look " (ལྟ་) and the clause
connective "at that time" (སྐིབས་) . Iti̅means "when he looked"i̅and li nks with the previous
clauses as follows " A0 fter the rabbit took the lion behi nd a big mountai n, (he) poi nted to a
well and simHutauneousy answered, "Th at animal is i nside that over there, " and the li on,
having roared loudly, went to the edge of the well and (having done that) looked, and
when he looked, . . ." ཚེ་ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
The fi nal clause (གྲོན་པའི་ནང་ནས་འདམ་སེང་ཞིག་མ་ ཐོང) i n this section begi ns with the
phrase གྲོན་པའི་ནང་ན་ ས་, "from i nside the well." Note that ནས་ here does not function as a
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