Lesson Five [ [ 9
verbal connective but rather m eans " from." Thi s is followed by the phrase འི་ དམ་ སེང་ཞིག་ , "a
li on." Thi s clause e nds with the i nvolu ntary verb མ་ ཐོང་, "saw.\'\' Thus, thi s fi nal clause
means " (from) i nsi de (of) the well (he) saw a li on." We k now that འ་ དམ་ སེང་ཞིག་ i s the
object of the verb མཐོང་ ratheri̅than the subject because it does not contai n the i̅
i nstrumental case particle which isrequired for the verb མཐོང་, even though it is
i nvolu ntaury. i̅ i̅
ཚེThe structure of this segment is རི་བོང་གིས་ . . . ཁྲིད་རྗེས་, . . . བཙགས་ཏེ་, . . . ལན་བཏབ་ཅིང་,
འདམ་སེང་དེརྭས་ . . . རྒྱབ་ནས་, . . . ཕྱིན་ནས་, . . . ལྟ་སྐབས་, . . . མཐོང་།
" A fter the rabbit took the lion behi nd a big mountai n, (he) pointed to a well and i̅
simu [taneousy aunswered, "That animal is insi de that over there, " aund the lion, having once
again roared loudly, went to the edge of the well and (having done that) looked, and
when he looked, saw a lion ." i̅ ཚེ་ i̅
ll . The eleventh section consists of two clauses l. འདམ་སེང་དཀར་ ་པོ་དེས་གྲོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་ང་རོ་དྲག་པོ་
ལན་འགའ་ཞིག་བསྒྲགས་པས་ 2. གྲོན་པའི་ནང་གི་འདམ་སེང་དེས་ཀྱང་ཚུར་ང་རང་རོ་བསྒྲག་
ཚེ
The first clause starts with the subject i n the i nstrum ental, "that white lion" (འདམ་
སེང་དཀར་ i̅པོ་དེས་) , i ndicating an active verb construction. It is followed by a phrase i̅
speci fyi ng the l ocati on of the verbal act, "i nsi de the well" (གྲོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་) . A fter thi s com es
the verbal phura se "roared" (ང་ ་ར་ . . . བསྒྲགས་) . It, however, i s modifi ed by two words.
" l oudpowerful" and "several times" (དྲག་པོ་ and ལན་འེགའེ་ཞིག་) . Thus, this clause means
"That li on made a pxowerful roar several tim es." This Cl ause could have been written so
that thei̅adverbial phrase did not split the verbal phrase འེདམ་སེང་དེས་གྲོན་པའི་ནང་དུ་ལན་འགའ་ཞིག་
ང་རོ་དྲག་པོ་བསྒྲགས་
i̅This clause is li nked to the next clause by the "because" connective (པས་) , so that
it m ea ns " Bec au se that lion roauned l oudly several tim es i nto the wel l , . . ." i̅
ཚེThe subsequent clause begins with a complex subject phrase in the instrumental
case གྲོན་པའི་ནང་གི་འདམ་སེང་དེས་, which consists of the actor, "by that lion" ((འད་མ་སེང་དེས་) ,
linked to a preceeding phase by the genitive so as to Create a relative clause"who was
i nside of the well" (གྲོན་པའི་ནང་གི་) . The subject, therefore, m eans " by that lion who was
i nsi de of the well." Thi s is foll owed by the word "also" (ཀྱང་) and then the verbal phrase ང་
ར་བསྒྲགས་
("roared") , modified by theadverbial ཚུར་ ("hither") , thatis tosay, the "roar"
come toward thei̅direction of the lion outsi de the well. Thus the clause means "The
enemy who was i n the well , also roared back (hither) ." Both clauses together m ean
"Because that lion roared loudly several tim es i nto the well , the lion who was i n the well
also roared back (hither) ." i̅ ཚེ་ i̅ ཚེ་ ཚེ
12. The twelfth segment consists of two cl auses l. སྐབས་དེར་ ་འདམ་སེང་དཀ་ར་པོ་དེརྭས་མཆེ་གཙིགས་སྡེ་ར་
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