Lesson Six [2.7
the action in the second clause occurs as soon as" the action in the first clause does.
a. ལྷ་སར་སླེབས་པ་ད་ག་དོན་གཅོད་ཁང་ལ་ཕྱིན་སོང་།
lhasato arrive soonas office towe nt went compl. i̅
As soon as (he, she, etc.) arrived i n Lhasa, (he, she, etc.) went to the bureau office.
b. ཁོས་འགྲོག་པའི་ལྟོ་ཆས་ཟས་མ་ཐག་ན་སོང་།
heby nom ad- of food ate soonas sick went compl.
As soon as he ate the nomad food, (he) got sick .
c. སྟོན་ཐོག་བསྡས་འཕྲལ་གཞུང་ལ་ཁྲལ་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་རེད།
harvest collectedsoon-as governm ent to tax give fut. compl. i̅[ ]
As soon as (he, she, etc.) collect (s) the harvest, (he, she, etc.) will pay taxes to the
ཚེgovernm ent. ཚེ
d. རྒྱལ་རྩེར་སླེབས་པ་དེ་མ་ཐག་ཏུ་མགྲོན་ཁང་ལ་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
gyantseto arrive soonas hotel to went compl.
As soon as (he, she, etc.) arrived i nHGyantse, (he, she, etc.) went to the hotel.
e. ཕྱི་རྒྱལ་བ་དེས་རྒྱལ་རྩེར་སླེབས་ཉིད་དུ་ལྷ་སར་ལན་བཏང་སོང་།
forei gner thatby gyantseto au̲mve soonas lh asato m essage sent past compl.
As soon as (he, she, etc.) arrived i nHGyantse, (he, she, etc.) sent a message to Lhasa.
It shouldbe remembered that པ་དང་ functions to convey both "aund" (see 4.2) and
"as soon as." Only context and experience will allow one to ascertai n which meani ng is
i ntended.
f. ཁོས་མིག་བལྷས་པ་དང་ཡལ་སོང་།
heby look edsoonas vanished went compl.
As soon as he look ed, (it) vanished.
g. ཁོས་ལྷ་ཁང་ནང་ལ་འཛུལ་བ་ཙམ་ནས་བླ་མ་ཞིག་མu ཐོང་སོང་།
heby temple i n to entered soonas lam a one saw went com pl.
As soon as he entered (i nto) the templ e, (he) saw a lam a.
h. མོས་ལབ་པ་དང་ངས་ཧ་གོ་བྱུང་།
sheby speak aund iby u nderstood got.
As soon as she spoke, Ii̅understood. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
Note that ཧ་གོ་ is one ot the i nvoluntaury verbs that require their subjects to be i n the
i nstrumental case.
6.3 Negation of active aundi nvoluntaury verbs
i̅i̅ i̅ A ctive verbs are negated by the same paticles aund negatives verbs that are used
i n li nki ng and existential constructions, i.e མ་, མི་, མི་ན་, ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད་, and མེད་
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