[28 Lesson Six
Pnesent, usua, an d future tenses
Usual, present, and future actions are expressed i n the negative by the present
nonpast stem of the verb pl us the negativi zed verbal complem ent. For example, the
negation of དེ་རིང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་འིདུག། ("Today he is working.") is illustrated in a. below.
a. དེ་རིང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མི་འདུག།
today heby work do pres. compl. no
Today he is not working.
b. ད་ལྷ་མོས་ལྟོ་ཆས་བཟོ་བཞིན་དུ་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
now sheby food make pres. compl. no
She is not maki ng food now.
c. མོ་ལ་དངུལ་མེད་སྟབས་གློག་བརྙན་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་མ་རེད།
she to money without since movie togo fut. compl. no.i̅
Because she has no money, (she) will not go to the movie. i̅
More literaury genre generally di spense with the verb complement and simply put
the negative མི་ before the future or nonpast stem of verbs. For exampl e,
d. ཁོའི་དངུལ་རྫོགས་ཙང་རྟ་དེ་མི་ཉོ། i̅
he-of money exhausted since horse that no buy [ ]
Because his money is exhausted, (he) will not buy that horse. i̅ [ ]
The difference between usual aund present tense constructi onsi s generally a result
of context and auxilliaurywords such as those used i n sentences e. and f. ("now'' and
"often") . ཚེ་ e.
e. འགྲོག་པས་ལྷ་སར་ཡང་སེ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
nomadby lhasato often go usual compl. no
Nomads do not often go toLhasa.
f. འགྲོག་པས་ལྷ་སར་ད་ལྟ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
nomadby lhasato now go usual pres. compl. no

Nomads are not going toLhasa now.
Other typical constructions are
g. ཁོས་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་ཞེ་དྲགས་ཟ་གི་མི་འདུག།
heby ti betof food alot eat usual compl. no
He doesn"t eat Tibetan food a lot.
h. ཁོས་བོད་པའི་ཁ་ལག་ད་ལྟ་ཟ་གི་མི་འདུག།
he-by tibetof food now eat usual pres. compl. no
i̅He isn"t eating Tibetan food now.
i. མོས་ཞིང་ལས་ཡག་པོ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་མེད་པ་རེད།
sheby fa mwork good do usual compl. no
She does not do farnl work well.
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