Lesson Six [29 ---
i̅ཚེ་ The vb. + པ་རེད་ forn of the "usual" becomes vb. + པ་མ་རེད་
j. ཆོས་ལྡན་ལགས་ཨ་རིར་སྡོད་དུས་སློབ་གྲྭར་ཕེབས་པ་མ་རེད།
chu ndenla am ericato stay when school་རྗo go (h.) usual compl. no
WhenHChöndenla stay ed i n America, (she) didn"t (usually) go to school.
Past tense i̅ ཚེ
Although one would have expected that the negation of the པ་རེད་ past
complem ent would be པ་མ་རེད་ , thi s i s not the case. Instead, as example k . illustrates, th e
negative particl e མ་ i s placed before the past tense stem of the verb (མ་ + vb. + པ་རེད) .
k. ཁ་ སང་ཁོས་ལས་ ཀ་མ་བྱས་ པ་རེད།
yesterday heby work no did past compl.
He di d not work yesterday . i̅ ̅
As was the case for the future tense, in the more literaury genre the པ་རེད་ past
complem ent i s simply dropped and just a negative particle (མ་) + verb suffices. For
example, [ ]
l. ཁ་ སང་ཁོས་ལས་ ཀ་མ་བྱས[
yesterday heby work no did
He did not work y esterday. i̅ i̅ i̅ i̅
When the སོང་ past complement is used, the negative particle fol lows the main verb and
precedes སོང་ For example,
m. ཁ་སང་ཁོས་ལས་ཀ་བྱས་མ་སོང་།
y esterday heby worì did no went compl.
He di d not work y esterday.
Negation of dependent clauses follows the same patterns that were described
above. For example, ཚེ
n. སང་ཉིན་ཁོ་ནང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་མི་ཟ་ན་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་ཁ་ལག་ཟ་བར་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
tomorrow he home to food no eat if restaurant to food eat i nf. go fut. compl.
If he does not eat at home tomorrow, (he) will go to eat at the restaurant.
o. ཁ་སང་ཁོས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་རྩ་ལ་མ་ཕྱིན་ན་དེ་རིང་འགྲོ་གི་རེད།
yesterday heby ki ng-of presence to no went i f today go fut. compl.
If he did not go to the presence of the ki ng yesterday, (he) will go today.
p. ཁ་ ས་ཕྲུ་ག་དེས་ལས་ཀ་མ་བྱས་སྟབས་ ཟ་ཁང་གི་བདག་པོས་ཁོར་གླ་ ཆ་མ་སྤྲད་ པ་རེད།
yesterday child thatby work no did since restaurant of ownerby he-to wage no gave
i̅ past compl. [ ]་̅ i̅
Si nce that child did not work yesterday, the owner of the restaurant did not pay him
ཚེwages.
q. སང་ཉིན་ཕྲུ་གུ་དེས་ལས་ཀ་མི་བྱ་སྟབས་ཟ་ཁང་གི་བདག་པོས་ཁོར་གླ་ཆ་སྤྲོད་ཀྱི་མ་རེད།

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