[30 ེ་ Lesson Si x

tomorrow Child thatby work no do si nce restaurant of ownerby heto wage give
past compl. neg. i̅
Because th at chi l d will not work tom orrow, the ow ner of the restaura nt wi ll not pay
him wages. [ ]
r. ཁོས་ཆང་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་མེད་ཅི་ང་། ཐ་མག་ཀྱང་འཐེན་གྱི་ཡོད་པ་མ་རེད།
he-by bar to go usual neg. and cigarette also smok e usual compl. neg
He does not go to the bar and also does not smoke cigarettes.
s ཁོ་འདིར་ཡོང་གི་མིན་པར་བརྟེན། ང་ཚོ་ཟ་ཁང་ལ་འགྲོ་གི་ཡི་ཡིན།
heby here come fut. compl. neg. si nce i pl. restaurant to go fut. compl.
Because he will not come here, we will go to the restaura nt. i̅
The negation of involuntary verbs follows the same pattern as active verbs.
t. ངའི་གྲོགས་པོའི་ན་ཚ་མ་དྲག་ཙང་སྨན་ཁང་ལ་ཨེ་མ་ཆི་ཐཁ་པར་ཕྱིན་པ་རེད།
i-of fri endof illness norecover si nce hospital doctor meet i nf. went compl.
Because my friend"s il l ness did not get better, (he) went to the hospital to meet (see)
ཚེ
a doctor.
u. ཆུ་མི་འཁོལ་ཚེ་ཇ་ཞིམ་པོ་མི་འདུག།
water no boil i f tea taste- good no exi st
If the water does not boil, the tea is not tasty. ཚེ་ v.
v. སློབ་གྲྭ་བ་དེ་ཚོ་མཁས་པར་མི་འགྱུར་ན་ལས་ཀ་ཡག་པོ་རག་གི་མ་རེད།
student that pl. expert no become i f work good obtai n fut. compl. neg
If those students do not become experts, (they) will not obtai n a good jobs.
w. ཉིས་པ་དེ་ཡང་པོར་མི་འགྱུར་ན་ཁོ་ཤི་གི་ར་ ད།
punishment that li ghtto no become if he die fut. compl.
If the punishment does not become lessened, he will die. i̅ ̅ i̅
Note that འགྱུར་ typically requires the dativelocative (པར་ ་, པོར་ ་) to i ndicate change into
som ethi ng.
6.4 The enumerative particles སོགས་ and བཅས་
While two items can be listed or enume ated by means of the connective particle
དང་ ("and") , three or m ore item s require one of the above particles. The sta ndard practice
is for དང་ to be p l aced after the firstitem m enti onedi̅foll owed by a "་། " and a space. All
subsequent items are separated by " " u ntil the final item , after which one of the
enum erative paticles is placed. The first of these, སོགས་ , i ndicates th at the li st i s
i ncomplete and i s generally translated as "such as" or "so forth, " or "etc."
a. ཡུལ་དེར་སྟག་དང་། འདམ་སེང་། རེ་བོང་སོགས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
countrrythatto tigerand lion rabbit etc. exist

There are tigers, lions, rabbits, and so forth in that countrry.
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