Lesson Six [3 [
i̅When བཅས་ is used after the fi nal item i n a list, it i ndicates th at the precedi ng i̅
items fornm a complete set and are not m erely ill ustrative of a larger set. For example, i f
we replace the སོགས་ i n example a. with བཅས་, the meaning changes
b. ཡུལ་དེར་སྟག་དང་། འདམ་སེང་། རེ་བོང་བཅས་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
cou ntrry th atto ti ger and li on rabbit i.e. exi st
There are ti gers, lions, and rabbits i n that country. i̅
These particles have otherrelated, but slightly di fferent, uses. For example, སགས་
can be used without a list of items to convey the meani ng "aund so forth"or "such as."
c. ཨ་མེ་རི་ ཀ་སོགས་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་མང་པོས་ཀྲུང་ གོར་རོགས་རམ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
am erica etc. nati on m anyby chi nato help do present compl.
Many nations such as America are helping (assisting) HChina. i̅
If བཅས་པའི་ is substituted for སོགས་ , it convey s the m eani ng of "i nclu di ng." For ex ampl e,
d. ཨ་མེ་རི་ཀ་བཅས་པའི་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་མང་པོས་ཀྲུང་གོར་རོགས་ར་མ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་པ་རེད།
america i.e. nation manyby chinato help do present compl.
Ma ny nations, i ncludi ng A meri ca, are helpi ng (assi sti ng) HChi na. [ ]
i̅བཅས་ is also used i n the pattern པ་བ་དང་བཅས་ (ཏེ་) , where it has a completely
di fferent m ea ni ng. Here it fu nctions to Create aun adverbi al phrase explai ni ng how the
action i n the second clause occurred. In the first example below (e.) , it explai ns how the
ion answered------in the manner ofi̅roaring. In the secondi̅ (f.) , it explains how he a rived
------i n the m anner of jumpinghopping. This is also sometimes translated as "together with'"
or "along with." ཚེ་ e.
e. འདམ་སེང་གིས་ང་རོ་སྒྲོག་པ་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་རེ་བོང་ལ་ལན་བཏབས་པ་རེད།
lion by roar and i.e. rabbit to answered past compl.
Roari ng, the li on ཚེanswered the rabbit.
f. རེ་བོང་ཞིག་གློ་བུར་དུ་མཆོངས་པ་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་འདམ་སེང་གི་མདུན་དུ་སླེབས་བྱུང།
rabbit one suddenly jump and i.e. lion of front toau̲rnved got
Iumping suddenly, the rabbit arrived i n front of the lion.
This usage also occurs without the ཏེ་, that is to say as དང་བཅས་ For example,
g. དགའ་སྤྲོ་ཚད་མེད་དང་བཅས་ཁོང་ལ་དགའ་བསུ་ཞུས་པ་རེད།
joy boundless i.e. he to welcomedpast compl.
(They) welcomed him with boundless joy. i̅ i̅
The nextexample illust ates how དང་བཅས་ཏེ་ can bei̅used with nominals. It conveys the
adverbial fuunction (How did he go?------She went with the monks) and would no mally be
translated as "along with."ཚེ་ h.
h. བླ་མ་དེ་གྲྭ་པ་དང་བཅས་ལྷ་སར་ཕེབས་པ་རེད།
lama that monk i.e. lhasato came past compl.
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